Saturday, July 28, 2007

Women Issues in Mizo Society

Hmingthanzuali & H.Vanlalhruaia

"We must agree that most women want freedom and most women want equality as well. This is what makes us similarly human. That we may define these constructs differently also makes us uniquely human."
- Zillah Eisenstein

Abstract: Women Issues is new and complex in Mizo society. My purpose is to show how the present Mizo society fails to incorporate women’s concerns or overlook gender issues, how and why the prevailing misconceptions about gender and women’s issues emerge in Mizo society?

Discourse on women issues has been gaining popularity beginning from the post-colonial period through to the times of the recent public media. The subject of women issues gave a new impetus of looking at the question of women’s identity in the Mizo society. It has been felt that male predominance tends to ignore the role of women in the pre-colonial Mizo society. The general assumption is that many aspects of life in the Mizo society has been influenced by modernization particularly from the early part of 20th century. Traditional cultures have been re-defined since the Mizos’ contact with the British and Christian missionaries, although sensitization towards the arena of women based issues continue to be confined within the model of western patriarchal paradigm. More than ever, patriarchy is gaining a stronger hold in the modern period especially when compared to the pre-colonial period. (B. Lalrinchhani, 1998) Modernization can be seen largely in terms of material culture, whereas ‘traditionalism’ still influences the Mizo society at the level of consciousness and ideas. Mizo customary laws in relation to women practically have not changed. (Laldena Hmar, 2002) Initially, women consciousness stated within the framework of the church was mostly based on protestant ethics. However, many churches seldom give equal rights to women since the ideology of the church is based on a patriarchal model. Ordination of women pastors/reverends is unknown despite the development of the Baptist church’s broad-mindedness towards the appointment of women as church elders/officials or Kohhran Upa/Rawngbawltu. (Linda Chhakchhuak, 2002) This has urged Mizo women theologians to raise questions over and over again.

Political consciousness during the post-independent era initiated a succession of changes in the Mizo society. Despite the rise of a new educated class who created a consciousness within the society, political parties and social organisations fail to recognise the importance of gender issues. Hence, a group of Mizo women have continuously felt dissatisfied and this gave rise to the establishment of the Hmeichhe Tangrual Pawl in 1946, followed by the Mizo Women Organisation (MHIP) in 1964. Initially, the new women organisation raised the need to reform traditional and cultural practices of the Mizos. They raised their voice against discrimination and injustice in the society. Today their activities range from the set up of orphanage, drug de-addiction camp, movement of protests against rape, domestic violence, reform of customary laws, reform of bride price and many others. But these issues usually end up in nothing beyond mere discussions.

Various academic discourses on Marxism, capitalism, globalization, subaltern, popular culture, human rights, postmodernism, post-structuralism etc provide a new thinking for many educated Mizos. Together with this process, the term ‘feminism’ (a distinctive problematic concept) recently appeared in public vocabulary although it has been strongly opposed by a group of men, and of course, a majority of Mizo women themselves. The hegemony of patriarchy has been well constructed as many women activist are branded as ‘anti-men’. Hence, women activist are not in a position to voice women issues and they also tend to identify themselves as ‘non-feminists’. This is due to personal justification or perhaps a lack of understanding ‘feminism’ as an ideology. Moreover, the majority of Mizos have stereotypical views on feminism as ‘anti-men’ rather than ‘emancipation of women’. Who ever talks about women issues is usually labelled as a feminist (generally, feminism has negative implication in Mizo society). Very few women (mostly women theologians) who speak publicly about gender discrimination are regarded as extremist or Hmeichhe Nasa. Of course, some women who perpetuate these ideas are often even aggressive when defending their ideas. There are also women activists, researchers, etc who keep quiet and show nothing but compliance to the existing order of society, this is done as a result of fear of insult.

Theoretical discourse on women issues in Mizo society is far more behind than other issues. Because there has been little attempt by scholars and intellectuals to conceptualize in the context of Mizoram. What is gender or women issue in the context of Mizoram? Why do a majority of the Mizos have a strong discrimination towards gender or women studies? This is perhaps due to Mizo women activists and researchers not being equipped with a strong ideology, as they scarcely spell out the question of women or gender issues in the context of the Mizo society. Moreover, there are very few devoted women activists, scholars and researchers to expose gender relations and to investigate how assumptions, norms and hidden structures created and perpetuated disadvantage women in Mizo society. At least if there were some viable arguments it would be easy to defend women’s position.

Recent works on women studies, for instance Lalruatfela Nu’s "Engvangin nge Hmeichhiate hi tihchak an tul?" (The Aizawl Post. 25. feb, 2005) talks about empowerment of Mizo women. The article starts with gender division based on the genetic postulation in which she emphasized ‘men are stronger than women’. Taking this into consideration, one can hastily presume that physical strength has been an important criterion of gender division in society. Most women intellectuals would argue that ‘difference between men and women’s achievements and participations are result of socially constructed gender roles rather than of biological difference. (Kamla Bhasin, 2000.p.62) Moreover, there is no point of questioning the biological factor which will not change at all. The fact is that men do not hold plain superiority or stronger position over women in the present Mizo society. Are we trying to construct our society based on the masculine body? Physical strength may have played a role in the caveman days...but not since. And further, had women not been able to "gather" and thereby watch the camp for possible intruders (multi-tasking) we may have not survived either.

Currently, most of the Mizo women activists have claimed–and disowned–the label "feminist". After all, who would want to be a feminist in such a society where gender issues are strongly opposed? For instance, Rualfela Nu declares "I’m not a feminist to the extent that I would fight for ‘gender equality’ in the Mizo society". (The Aizawl Post. Dt.25. feb, 2005) One must wondering what ‘equality’ and ‘gender’ means to her? Her paradigm in her previous book "Nawhchizawrna leh a kaihnawihna" was very much a part of a significant issue in feminist thought and activism. (Lalruatfela Nu, 2004) What makes her is not always herself, but something that comes from her. It is likely that she outwardly rejected the term ‘feminism’ but not the feminist’s gender issues. Ruatfela Nu does not directly contest male-centred ways of knowing even as she questions the gender discrimination in Mizo society.

History has largely remained a record of public events and personae to the exclusion of the private sphere of the home and the family. Some women put forward that ‘History is HIS STORY; to get a complete picture of the world we also need HER STORY’. (Kamla Bhasin, 2000) This exclusion of women from the domain of history seeks to reinforce prevailing gender stereotypes. By portraying women as passive through the ages, it would be easier to justify their continued exclusion from the public sphere. (Veena Poonacha, p.399) Looking at the current trend in Mizo history, few efforts have been done to reconstructs the role of women. Why has the role of women in the history of Mizo society remained relatively unexplored, though their potential contribution to an understanding of social change appears so obvious? Moreover, women’s role in history has been largely ignored and seldom recorded by Mizo historians. For instance, where are Mizo women who were actively involved in the Mizo National Front (MNF) movement of 1966-1987? We need hard working scholars who will use various theoretical perspective, paradigm and varying levels of analysis.

Marginality of women could be seen in the trend of women’s participation in the political process of the state. In pre-British society women play significant role in the village administration as there were many female rulers among the Mizos. Ropuiliani Chieftainess gave her life for defending her territory where most Mizo chiefs gave up. Now, the role of women in pre-British Mizo politics becomes a history as current politics is virtually dominated by men. There are no women members in State Legislative Assembly. Even in the district level, there are very few women in the village council. In such society, who could expect practical reform on the position of Mizo women and how many times will women issues are diverted in the State Assembly or in the village council?

In times of campaigns, political parties are usually generous in giving promises to women to better their future, but mostly such promises remain on paper. Women do not find a place on decision-making committees of political parties. But mere entry into the political system should not end transparency, accountability and commitment for the women’s movement. Instead of being submerged in the vastness of events, procedures, dogmas and ruthless competition, the movement must sail on to its destination of equality and empowerment. The task is uphill, but is not impossible. Women’s entry to politics is necessary to help them in their struggle against injustice and to strengthen democracy. (Usha Thakkar) If mainstream Indian women such as Mamta Banerjee, Sonia Gandhi, Uma Bharti, Phoolan Devi, Jaya Lalitha and many others play such important roles in both regional and national politics, why not our Mizo women? (Remsangpuii Nu, 2001).

Due to this extreme cultural patriarchal hegemony which remains predominant in our society, many individuals and groups continue to encounter gender inequality. Recently, there has been a paradigm shift as Mizo women are more and more progressive towards raising women issues in Mizo society. The last few years witnessed numbers of conferences, trainings and workshops on the subject of women organised by NGO’s, Universities, the Government and women organisations etc. Since then the idea of gender is slowly ingrained in our contemporary society, at least among social activists, organisations and academicians. Why not respond positively rather than branding them as anti-Mizo towards the customs and traditions of the Mizo society? Moreover, there is nothing wrong in being a women activist or a feminist if not hijacked for the purpose of chauvinistic ‘feminism’ or ‘Gynocentric’ or ‘Gynarchy’ or ‘Gynocracy’ or ‘sexist’ or ‘anti-men’.

Gender equality is a myth, whereas gender discrimination can be wiped out. As for me, gender equality means socio-economic and political ‘participation’ based on a person’s ability to possess and perform, without any discrimination based on sex or biology, caste and creed, and so on. Let us hope that Mizo intellectuals and scholars will take up the challenge to bring out the ideas of ‘women issues’ or ‘gender’ or ‘emancipation of women’ in Mizoram: what, when, why and how? Finally, let us also look forward for the time when more and more Mizo women actively take part in the cultural process of the Mizos without marginalizing their roles in the society.

-----end------------------------------------End------------------end

@Many thanks to Adami and Mami, University of Hyderabad, Bianca Maison, D/O Dr Vumson L (Zo historian) South Asian Studies, Amsterdam University, Linda Chhakchhuak, Journalist, Editor of Grassroots Option and Rebecca, Bangalore for their thoughtful comments and suggestions on the earlier versions of this paper.

@Gender refers to the socio-cultural meanings given to masculinity and femininity and to the complex and varying relations between the two. (L. Ackers, 1998) Women Studies has diverse meaning, but here it is purposefully refers to a discourse that attempt to reconstruct/re-defining women’s experience and women’s role in the society.

References & Endnotes: B.Lalrinchhani (1998); Christianity and Women in Mizoram, unpublished M.Phil Dissertation, North Eastern Hill University.
District Situation Analysis for CHARCA, AIZAWL, October 2002.
Kamla Bhasin (2000); Understanding Gender, Delhi. p.24.
L. Ackers; Shifting Spaces - Women, citizenship and migration within the European Union, Bristol: Policy Press, 1998.
Laldena Hmar (2002); Status of Mizo Women, The Sangai Express 2002. www.manipuronline.com.
Linda Chhakchhuak; "Patriarchy in religion", http://www.indiatogether.org/women/worklife/churchpatriarch.htm.
Linda Chhakchhuak (2002): "Women of God Want A Place in Church," http://www.boloji.com/wfs/wfs047.htm, June 12.
Ruatfela Nu (2005); "Engvangin nge Hmeichhiate hi tihchak an tul?", in The Aizawl Post, (Daily News Paper, Mizoram) 25. Feb.
Lalruatfela Nu (2004); Nawhchizawrhna leh a Kaihnawih, Lengchhawn Press, Aizawl 2004.
Remsangpuii Nu (Buangi Sailo) (2001); Mizo Nunhlui leh Tunlai, Aizawl.
Veena Poonacha (2004); "Recovering Women’s Histories: An Enquiry into Methodological Questions and Challenges," Indian Journal of Gender Studies, Vol.11. No. 3, Sage Publications, New Delhi.
Zillah Eisenstein (2004); "What’s In A Name?: Seeing Feminism, Universalism, and Modernity," Wagadu Volume 1 : Spring. p.23.
Singh, Amar Kumar & C., Rajyalakshmi (1993): Status of Tribal Women in India. Social Change. Dec. 23(4).p.3-18. Location: SNDT Churchgate.
Usha Thakkar; Endengering Politics for Good Governance: Advocacy by Women for Social and Political Change.

64 comments:

Calliopia said...

My sister and a friend of hers, both well educated University grads, attended the recent MHIP day celeb function at their veng but both complained they just couldn't relate to anything. Things discussed were apparently just too localised, trivial and insipid. My father had helped set up the MHIP in the mid 70s for women's upliftment but I think they lost their way somewhere along the years and it's now nothing more than a women's branch of Mizoram politics.

Women, in general, are already hampered by an inborn who-does-she-think-she-is-anyway aggro without the unhelpful Mizo attitude (hmeichhe nasa type) you mentioned. And the Biblical order and hierarchy of men as head of women just makes things even more difficult. It'll take a long long time to change social perceptions and attitudes and the pervasive blatant bias to all things male.

illusionaire said...

Very well written and well researched. Your article is definitely worth using as a reference in case I write a similar topic too. Well done Pu Vanlalhruai, you're the best.

Most societies had always been strictly patriarchal. Even if you look at the various women empowerment movements, it is only the ones headed by males that actually gain grounds. Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Ishwar chandra vidyasagar to name a few. What we need is another Olympe de Gouges, Mary Wollstonecraft and Susan B. Anthony.

I come from a family background where my mother has almost the same social standing as my dad. Yet, when it comes to actual societal power and influence, the difference is vast. Likewise, my neighbours are the likes of Pi Boihchhingpuii and Pi Sangkhumi. Powerful women, but sadly, only on paper.

The higher we lift our women, the higher we will progress.

illusionaire said...

By the way I am working on a small part time project about youth culture in Mizoram. Can you come over to my blog and help me out on my latest post? Thanx!

dultea said...

ziak tha hle mai. Hmingthanzuali hi azuali of MSVT mi?

neasato said...

dultea..aw ni e..in in hre mial a ni maw..! lawkhawm pawh a rawn en ve zeuh zeuh thin a sin...!!

avena said...

Hruaia & Azuali

in ziak ngaihnawm hle mai.Thlirna kawng hrang hrang atang in in thlir a, chhiar ati nuam khawp mai.

1) mizo society a women issues , ziak ka chhiar ve thenkhat te, leh titi khawm na a an tawngkam te ngaihthlak hi chuan "ego" lianpui an nei ta mai emaw tih tur hi ani thin a. An mahni chuan an rilru ah an hre thiam in, an pawm thlap ani mai thei, mahse mi dang la pawm ve lo te, a tul na la hre lo te, ngaihdan lianpui lo nei sa tawh te rilru hmin a pawi mawh ber ani , tih hi an mang nghilh deuh thin em ni aw? ka ti thin.

2) university kan awm ve lai, political theory la thin tu kan professor pakhat chuan , extreme feminist a in ti thin.mahse hetiang lam sawi chuan , class a inhnial bap bap te pawh in, a tawngkam hman ah te pawh a fimkhur em em, midang rilru hmin theih na tur anga a hriat tawngkam a hmang hram hram. "patriarchy" tih ang te khi , "patrilineal" tih zawk tur tih ang thleng in a sawi thin. ka rilru a hneh thin khawp mai a lecture ngaihthlak chuan.

3) kan pi leh pu, min thlahtu te atanga rei tak tawh a, mipa leh hmeichhia tha, leh nundan tur a kan ngaih tawh , her danglam tum na anih chuan, thiam tak a tih angaih hmel khawp mai in rawn sawi ang hian. anih loh chuan mi in an nuih vak loh leh, an tawng let nek zel hi. an rilru a hmin lo nasa tihna ani mai a.

4)tin, illusionaire te veng nu pahnih a rawn tarlan te pawh hi, ka hriat ve dan anih chuan illusionaire hian sawi dik lutuk tlat. khawtlang leh chhungkua a , hmeichhe tha leh fel awm dan tur anga ngaihdan awm sa tawh kha an zawm ta tihna ani mai a.hetah tak mai hian , hmeichhe nasa tih tawngkam (pu sikuli ti a fiamthu a an sawi thin ang) tih hlawh si lova engtin nge hma lak dan tur? tih tak mai hi buaithlak ani!!

5)Dan leh hrai (customary law) siam dang lam tih te pawh sawi rik a awm thin, a tangkai na chin pawh a awm ngei in ka ring.mahse hetah pawh hian rilru in hmin tho a pawi mawh, chuti anih loh chuan , panchayat a 33.3% women reservation awm ang mai tho hi ala ni thei cheu in ka ring. Kan chen na lam Tamil Nadu ah te pawh hian, 33.3% hmeichhia village/block/district panchayat ah te an awm. mahse a 'power' tak tak excercise tu chu an pasal te an la ni deuh vek. ka hriat theih chin ah hmeichhe pahnih khat tih loh chu, an pasal te member/councillor/president/chairman ni si lo khan, an nupui te nihna power kha an excercise zawk tlat.

6) panchayat a hmeichhe tan reservation siam vang a, hmeichhia tlem te in power an excercise tak tak na village atang a thil lo lang then khat te en hi chuan, hmeichhe dinhmun chawi san chu a pawi mawh zia a lang khawp mai. mipa leh hmeichhia hrim hrim hian, kan dah pawi mawh zawng te, khawtlang ah pawh kan ngai mawh te a in ang lova. mipa president ni se la an ngaihthah tur tam tak kha, an rawn ngai pawi mawh a, thil tha tak ani in alang.

7)English a thiam ve ang tawk tawk a rawn comment zawk awm tak chu ani na in, internet a thuziak hi chu search engine atang in a zawn hmuh zung zung theih si a. thiante leh thawh pui te hian in 'kah' dan tawngkam tawi te si , hre tak tak hi an tam ve si a, chuvang in mizotawng in kan ziak ta mai ani e.:))

dultea said...

@neasato : Ummm hria, kan ngaisang a lom. Min hre ve kher lo ang :D

hruaia said...

Thanks pu avena
Azuali tak hi Women Studies lam khawih a ni a. I comment ho hi ka lo pe chhawng vat ang. I point rawn sawi hmang hian ka'n lo revise leh dawn nia..thank u so much...!

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