Friday, December 7, 2007

Biak In Pahnih

Khawvela kan awm chhung hi chuan bungrua leh sum hi a lo pawimawh ber mai zawng a nih hi. Hei hi Kristiante thlirna dan tur erawh a ni lo. Mahse, Mizorama kan Kohran kan inenkawl dan leh kan Biak In hmelhmang hian a tarlang tel tlat si a ni. Rick Warren, (author of The purpose Driven Life/ The purpose Driven Church) America rama Kohhran din tu lar em em chuan Biak In (Building) nei hauh lovin, Kohhran a din a. Kum 24 chhung chuan a remchanna hmun a piangah; (a chang chuan Playground, Public Function hall etc) ah inkhawm a buatsaih mai thin a ni. Kohhran hlawhtling leh thang duang tak a ni tlat si. Mizoram-ah hian Biak In tel lo hian Kohhran a awm thei ange’m? Mizoram-ah hian Biak In neih hi tih makmawh kan neih mek a. A building sak duhdan leh cheimawina lamah kan inel nasa hle tawh a.Kan Biakin thenkhatte pawh sumdawnna nen a inchiah piah tan mek a ni.

Awle, ka han sawi tum tak zawk chu; Biak In pahnih inang lo tak mai chanchin hi a ni. Hman deuh khan thingtlang khaw pakhat (a hming sawi lang lo mai ang)ah ka zinnaah chuan kawr sirah hian In chhe tak, a bang dap, tlabal tawh lam, a chung di hi alo ding awn ve bai a. Ka han en chiang a, a Kohhran hming chu chiang fahran hian a lo in ziak a. A ni teh tak a! hetianga thingtlang khua, nitin eichawp zawnga nung tawk tawkte tan chuan Biakin Assam Type tak ngial pawh hi sual chhuah hautak zet tur hi a nia!

Hetih lai hian Mizoram khawpui pakhatah chuan hemi Kohhran chiah Biak In ve thung chu “a sak nan hian cheng engzat nge an sen ang aw” tih vawng vawng na tur hi a ni. A biakin chhung leh kawt zawng zawng chu cement mai ni lo, chhuat phah mawi chi phah vek a ni a. Biakin thutphah zawng zawng chu cushion dah vek a ni a. Pulpit chei mawina chu duhthu sam hi a ni ngawt mai. Rangkachak hi an luan lo chauh ni mai hian ka hria.

Tun hma khawthlang rama Biak In Building kha a ropui a ni. Biak In chei turin mithiam bik an ruai hial thin a ni. Kum zabi 14na Renaissance period an tih mai hun atang kha chuan mawi taka insak leh thil cheimawi na lam kha Biak In nen a inkungkaih nghet em em. Khawthlang rama in nalh ber ber chu Biak In (cathedral) a ni. hetih lai huna Kohhran te kha an hausa em em a. Ram zau tak tak leh rosum an ngah em em a ni. Mahse, hetih lai hian miretheite chu an rethei ngawih ngawih a revolution engemaw zah Europe ramah chuan a thleng a ni. Khatianga Kohhran in sum tamtak a huihkhawm a, Kohhran hruaituten an mamawh hun apianga Pathian in sum a mamawh ti a, mi awmthei deuh hnena an ngen ngawt thin kha…khatih lai sumdawng hausa hmasa ten an ning em em a. Protestant Kohhran rim a rawn nam a, khatih capitalist class te chuan an bawh ruih ruih a nih kha..! Hei vang hian protestant reformation tih hi Max Weber a chuan Capitalist Movement tiin a lo sawi hial ni.

Mahse, tunlai huna Biak In tam tak te chu a ruak ta heu huau hlawm thung a, a then chu Cinema Hall-ah te, Library atan te leh dawr atan te, leh Museum a tan te hman a ni ta a ni. Biak In ropui tak tak la ding mek te pawh hian luahlumtu a nei meuh tawh lova, kum lama upa deuh ho in hmuhkhawmna a ni ta deuh ber a. Thalai hmel phei chu hmuh tur a awm meuh tawh lo a ni. Tunhnuah rawngbawltu hrang hrang an lo chhuak a, Biak In building leh denomination lam sawi lovin, Fellowship an rawn din tan a. Thalai ten an bawr em em a ni. Heng zingah hian Hill Songs-Darlene-te hi kan hriat lar pawl tak tur an ni.

Mizoramah pawh Biak In neih thatah kan in el nasat mai bakah Biak In inchuhna pawh vawi duai lo kan hmelhriat tawh bawk. Biak In (building) lai hrim hrim hi in nghirnghona hmanrua tak a lo ni fo tawh thin. Hmanni lawkah UPC ten biak In an inchuh a, Shillong-ah pawh Baptist leh Presbyterian chuan Biak In inchuhin an lo in chaltauh hle tawh bawk. Biak In pakhat mai mai a vanga Patlingin hmai sen kan in hmuh duh hial ta mai hi a mak a ni. Ringtu chapo zingah hian - ‘tlawm zawk’ nih chu sawi loh, “Kan Kohhran hi kan dik tawk lo ve bawk a ni e” ti ngam hi an awm lo va, Pathian hmingin tlawm zawkah i tang ngam ang u tih phei chu a hnai lo lutuk. Zoram Kohhran hruaitute thenkhatte thluakah hian eng ber hi nge awm ang aw ka ti mai mai thin. Pawnlanga inchibai thei, chhungrila inngaidam si lo hi Pathian duhdan a nih a rinawm ber lo.

Mizorama kan Biak Inte hi a ropui tual tual a, Kohhran nihphung leh kalphung tak aia Biak In (Building) kan dah pawimawh em em na hian engtikah emaw chuan Khawtlang Kohhran dinhmun hi kan la tawn ve tur chu a nih hmel viau mai. Heng kan BiakIn sakna ropui tak tak ai hian Missionary-te hi tir chhuak tam ta zawk ila, kan zia zawk ngei ang.

Welsh ram atangin chanchintha eng kan hmu a. An nunah khuan zir tur tha tak kan nei. An ni khu, English ho laka rilru danglam pu chungin an inkhar ping tial tial a. An in sawr chhuak tlem tial tial a, mahni an inhaivur a. Missionary rilru lamah an pachhe tial tial. Tunah chuan, Missionary tirh let hial an ngai tawh a ni. Hetiang bawk hian Mizoramah pawh Biakin kan sa tha tual tual a, Kohhran dan kan zam khauh tulh tulh a. A hmingin Missionary tlem kan tirh chhuak a, mahse rawngbawlna kawngah leh ringthar siam kawngah kan pachhe hle si a ni. Rawngbawlna kawngah Missionary hnathawh lamah kan tlahniam tial tial a. Hei hian a nghawng tur WESLH ram ang bawk hi a ni.

Mizorama kan Biakin te pawh hi a awm tawk a awm a ni. Kan incheina thleng hian miretheite tan a inthlahrun thlak hle tawh a ni. Incheina mumal tak nei lo chuan, dinchhuah te phei chu-thil harsa a ni. Hetianga kan rama Kohhran insawhnghet tlut tlut lo hian Missionary thawnchhuah nan hian sum tam thei ber hi dah ila, kan inenkawlna hi chu awlsam zawnga kan tih a hun a ni. Mizoram hian thlaithar emaw eng bungrua mah thawnchhuah kan nei hauh lo, tunhma atanga kan thawnchhuah awm chhun chu "Chanchintha" chiah hi a ni.

Thursday, September 20, 2007


A national seminar on ‘North East in the 21st Century: Issues and concerns’, was organized in (Dt7-8) February 2005 by the Department of Political Science at the University of Hyderabad. Various important issues, questions and concerns pertaining to all North Eastern states of India, the North East for short, were raised and discussed. Surprisingly, the seminar did not cover Mizoram on the ground that there are no problems worth analyzing in Mizoram. I was not convinced. First, there indeed are problems which are worth examining. Secondly, Mizoram does not lack good things from which intellectual debates can be generated and learned. Or is it the case that scholarly and intellectual concerns should not cross the limit of problems in the society? Such attitude only reveals how the positive aspect of institutional development has been largely ignored by various discourses in amongst Indian intelligentsia.

In this work, I shall briefly outline North East (Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh) against the larger Indian context. My intention is not to present any final picture but to open up some points for under discussion. My focus is essentially on the issue of marginalization of North East.

It has been more than 50 years since India has been playing around with different projection paradigms in the North East, such as, ‘exotic cultural paradigm’, ‘security paradigm’, ‘integration paradigm’, ‘politics paradigm’, ‘economic package paradigm’, and so on. (Jairam Ramesh, 2005) Despite the efforts and possible solutions suggested by officials, intellectuals, medias, scholars and NGO activists, many questions are yet to be addressed. More importantly, the oft debated well known issues are left unattended despite promises to solve them. Why is it so?

The North East has been a part and parcel of South Asia since time immemorial. It is not an isolated entity but part of a wider socio-political and religious networks of neighbouring settlements, often constituting a sub-region. They relate to the even larger geo-political contexts of region, state, and nation. Assam has many foreign visitors of the Chinese, Persia, Arab, Portuguese, French and Italian etc. (N.N Acharyya, 1985) Assam, Manipur, Tripura have been known prior to the coming of the foreign elements – the colonial rulers. Hill tribes maintained their commercial contact with the plain areas of Assam and Bengal. Even the minority group of Chakmas had trade relations with the Mughals. Contact between Nagas and the Ahoms of Assam produced a new hybrid language called Nagamese. (B.K Baruah, 1993) The sacred literature of Ram and Sita was known to the Mizos many years before the British colonialism held sway in the North East. (Sangkima, 2002) Therefore, the region is not an isolated entity. Currently, the term ‘isolated region’ could validly be interpreted only in terms of India’s policy towards the development of technology and means of communication in the region. The distance between Delhi and Assam or Nagaland in the North East is perhaps lesser than distance between Delhi and Andhra Pradesh of southern India. But why do we still talk about North East as being isolated?

Discourse on the concept of North East by mainstream officials, scholars, medias and social scientists have always been an enterprise implicit in the agenda of India’s nationalism. The term North East was invented by the colonialist to identify a geographical area, later on adopted by Indian officials, intellectuals and medias for administrative and other suspicious political reasons. The term certainly requires scrutiny in the light of contemporary political situations. In sharp contrast to the existing concept, various ethnic groups in the North East prefer to identify themselves under their own specific group identity such as Assamese of Assam, Nagas of Nagaland, Mizos of Mizoram, Bodos of Assam and so on and so forth. The local people do not use the term North East and it has no viable meaning to them since there are apparent traits that mark a clear cut distinction between the various groups under discussion. One should not forget that North East depicts diversity of languages and cultural practices. For instance, there are more than 16 languages spoken in Nagaland alone. This diversity within the North East has to be noted rather than portraying the region as a homogenous entity while attempting to initiate discussions or developmental activities.

The Post-Independence era has been a period of confusion in the North East. Because of negligence (or should we say marginalization?) people have been and are confused about their future and their identity which resulted in so many peoples’ movements and struggles. Continuous marginalization has brought about more distrust and apathy. Initially, the only response or answer they got for their demands from the Central government was the Indian army. But we can see clear evidence of its failure to bring about normalcy in the region after 56 years of trials and experiments with the armed forces since India’s independence. The Indian army, the second largest in Asia is still unable to contain the small ‘insurgency’ groups of the region. The army has not provided a solution but merely infested the minds of the people with confusion and hatred. All northeastern states have shown resentment towards the occupation of the army in one way or the other. Retaliation is not the best solution when everyone wants to live a normal life. Has the Central government ever given a serious thought as to why so many young people still want to risk their lives by joining the so called insurgency groups?

The term ‘insurgency’ which has become an official and intellectual categorization needs to be explicated here. There has been little attempt to clarify the concept of insurgency’ in the context of the North East. Currently, the term has been generated and applied from one particular angle alone, from the mainstream nationalist perspective connoting a rebellious attitude or meaning. The term insurgency etymologically comes from a Latin word ‘insurgere’ which means to ‘rise up’. In English, the word could mean a ‘rebel’ or a ‘revolutionary’. Therefore, the official Indian perception or interpretation actually comes from the latter and is one sided. Explicitly infused with the English prejudice, officials, media and social scientists have branded North East as being infested by various ‘insurgency groups’ or ‘rebel groups’. On the contrary, it follows from the original word ‘insurgere’ it can be taken to mean that people have ‘risen up’ against marginalization. The Mizo National Front movement in 1966-1987 when Mizoram was an autonomous district council under the state of Assam is a good example of such an instance where people have ‘risen up’ against the negligence of the state towards a devastating famine that had ailed the region.( This case can also apply to many parts of the North East. Is it too much on the part of the mainstream Indian thinkers and policy makers to consider if the demands made by the local people are genuine at all?

The media has shaped the mainstream Indian’s perception of the North East. Insurgency, weird cultural practices and dirty politics have been the favorite topics of the mainstream reporters. They just report with intention to capture the imaginations of the mainstream people. Lack of cultural understanding coupled by superimposition of their own constructed ideas about the North East people result in suppression and distortion of truth or ground realities. Hardly, there is any visible effort either to change the undesirable situation in the region or methods in depicting the identity of the North East people. These images soon become ingrained in the consciousness of the mainstream Indian citizens. Occasionally, stories about cultural activities appear on some news paper but these are usually given only in passing. Insurgency, ethnic conflicts and crises get reported, genuine people stories rarely do. There are an awful lot of good things happening but they often escape the notice of the national and international reporters as if a rule unless somebody pushes to get them there. Such attitudes and practices sowed the seed of suspicion and hatred in the minds of the North East people. The Naga Students’ Federation who had forbidden a non-Naga to write on Naga history without their prior approval is a good example. (M.S Prabhakara, 2003)

Marginalization of the North Eastern region could be seen in the trend of historical writings in India. Well known intellectuals of the academic world such as Peter Burke’s ‘popular culture’, Eric Wolf’s ‘people without history’, E.P Thompson’s ‘unsung voices of history’, Genovese’s ‘objects and subjects of history’, Hobsbawm’s ‘social banditry’, Ranajit Guha’s ‘subaltern’, Lacan’s ‘others’, Said’s ‘orientalism’ Barthes’ ‘structural analysis of narratives’, Derrida’s ‘deconstruction’, Michel Foucault’s ‘history of the historian’ Skaria’s ‘hybrid histories’ and many others question the existing orthodoxy of historical discourse. (Kate Currie, 1997. E Shreedharan, 2004). This is also true in the context of the North East as the regional specificity has been ignored by the academic community until the recent time. The greatest challenge to the Indian historians is to incorporate regional histories in the broader framework of Indian history. (B.B Kumar, 1999) There has been consistent exclusion of North East from the history of India. Such neglect prompted the historians of North East India to take up research on the area but they failed to communicate them to the rest of India. As a result North East continues to suffer from historiographical exclusion. (Sajal Nag, 1998) This indifferent attitude towards the North East is evident in national curricula. (Sirkka Ahonen, 2001) The cultural history of various communities of the North East has hardly found space in national curricula. Their heroes are forgotten and instead fed with the stories of kings and kingdoms of the rest of India that largely does not appeal to the people of the North East. The struggle of Khasis, Mizo Chiefs, Jaintias and Nagas against the British have no place at all in the history of India. This is not only sad but also extremely unfair. The question remains the same with when Spivak asks ‘Can the Subaltern Speak’! (‘Can the Northeasterner Speak’). (Gayatri Spivak, 1988) The answer is still ‘No’ in Indian history unless a comprehensive change in the historical discourse of India takes place.

Finally, most of the current issues pertaining to North East are manufactured from outside but not from within. The region(s) are defined in terms of externality and the voice of civil society is hardly heard. Therefore, to undo marginalization of the North East, ‘the inside views’ should be given due and appropriate platforms. Perhaps, the North East will be then truly capable of representing themselves and also learn to thrive along with the rich cultural diversity of India.

  1. B.B Kumar (1999), ‘North East India: Crisis of perception & Credible Action’ in Dialogue (Quaterly) (A journal of Astha Bharathi, New Delhi). Vol.1 No.2 Oct-Dec.
  2. B.K Baruah (1993); Nagamese: The Language of Nagaland.
  3. Gayatri Spivak (1988), ‘Can the Subaltern Speak’ in Cary Nelson & Lawrence; Marxism and and the Interpretation of Culture. Ranajit Guha & Gyatri Spivak (Edt); Selected Subaltern Studies, 1988.
  4. Jairam Ramesh(2005); ‘Northeast India in a new Asia,, 2005.
  5. Kate Currie(1977); ‘The Challenge to Orientalist, Elitist and western historiography, Notes on the Subaltern project 1982-1989’ in George Pfeffer & Deepak Kumar Behera; Contemporary Society Tribal Studies, Volume Two, Concept Publishing House, New Delhi, 1997. E Shreedharan (2004); A Textbook of Historiography 500BC to AD 2000, Orient Longman,New Delhi. Eric Wolf (1982); Europe and the People Without history, University of California Press, Los Angeles. Peter Burke ‘The discovery of popular culture’ in Raphael Samuel (1981); People’s history and Socialist Theory, Routledge & Kegan Poul. Ajay Skaria (; Hybrid histories, Forest, Frontiers and wildness in western India, Oxford University Press.
  6. M.S Prabhakara (2003) ‘objects of history, on the politics of the Naga Students’ Federation’s warning against any academic research into the Naga people’s history without permission’ in Frontline, 26, September.
  7. N.N Acharyya (1983); Assam and Neighbouring States: Historical Document, Omsons Publications, New Delhi. S.C Dutta (1984); The Nort-East and The Mughals (1661-1714), DK Publications, Delhi.
  8. National curricula convey narratives that are never inclusive of whole communities, and history curricula in particular need examination of their role as forms of ‘identity politics. Minorities tend to be excluded from the master historical narratives. Sirkka Ahonen (2001); "Politics of identity through history curriculum: narratives of the past for social exclusion—or inclusion?" in Journal of Curriculum Studies ISSN 0022–0272 print/ISSN 1366–5839 online, Taylor & Francis Ltd,
  9. N.N Acharyya (1985); North East as View by Foreigners, Omsons Publications, Guwahati.
  10. Sajal Nag (1998); India and North-East India, Mind, politics, and the process of
integration 1946-1950, Recency Publication, New Delhi, 1998.
11. (2002) ; Contesting Marginality: Insurgency and Subnationalism in North East India, Monohar.

12. Sangkima (2002); ‘Impact of Ramayana upon the Mizo’ in Sujit K. Ghosh (Ed) Ramayana in the North-East India: Proceedings of the National Seminar Organised by Bharatiya Itihas Sankalan Samiti, Silchar. Sujit K. Ghosh ;Elective Affinities: The Influence of "Ramayan" on Mizo Religion & Culture’, in International Conference on Revisiting Indus-Sarasvati Age & Ancient India, October, 4 (Friday) - 6 (Sunday), 1996 Atlanta (Georgia), U.S.A

Wednesday, September 5, 2007

Ka Painting

Tun hma deuh han ti ve ngial ila..drawing leh painting hi nuam ka ti ve mai mai thin. A bikin pottery painting kha nuam ka ti thin khawp mai. Tunhnuah hian ka tih chhunzawm ta lo hrim hrim a, hman deuh khan ka painting pahnih khat ka hmuchhuak a, lung a leng duh khawp mai. Khatih lai khan caption ka dah ngai meuh lova, thenkhat chu ka dah ve lumlam bawk a. Hetiang lama thiamna nei tan chuan engvak a ni hauh lovang. Ka kutchhuak a nih vang hrim hrim hian ka ngaihlu ve a ni ber mi. Tuna ka painting pawh hi caption tur inhmeh zawk min rawn hrilh theih chuan ka lawm khawp ang.

Gender inequality

Tuesday, September 4, 2007


Viewer Discretion

He thu ziakah hian pawngsual chungchang leh mipat hmeichhiatna rawngkai (narrative) a awm avangin chhiartute zingah hetiang hriat nuam ti lo leh ngaihtuahna buai hma deuh kan awm a nih chuan chhiar hmain fimkhur lawk tur leh chhiar kher lo turin zalenna pawh i nei tih i lo hre hmasa dawn nia.

Sex hi mihring nuna bet tel tlat a ni. A pawimawh a, a tel lovin hring nun a kalhkim thei lova, hman sual theih fe a ni bawk. Khawi khawtlangah mah hian duh duh a, tawngtawngpaw Sex hman ringawt theihna a awm ngai lo. Dan leh khawtlang atanga khuahkhirhna a awm vek mai. Mahse, hman lai atanga tunlai khawvel chawk buaitu lian ber pakhat a ni reng si a ni. Mizo fate pawh kan bang tak tak thei bik ta lo. Sex hian mihring rilruah engemaw zawng takin a thawk nasa a ni. Mithiam zingah pawh Sex leh politics inzawm theih riau dante, khawtlang nuna a thawh dan te an chhui nasa em em tawh. Ram leh hnam hrang hrang ten sex kan ngaihdan leh hmuh dan a inang vek lo va. Tisa chakna erawh kan neih dan a inang vek lawi si. Hetah tak hian khawtlang leh ram dinhmun a zira inzirtirna hi a pawimawh reng a ni.

Globalization in min suartluan a, khawvel hmun hrang hrang chanchin kan hmuin ka hre thei vek tawh lai hian inzirtirna mumal kan nei tha lo tih thawm kan tualchhuak chanchinbuah a ri zing ta hle. A nih phung tak kan hriat mai piah lamah Kristian Ethics atanga zirtirna hi kan neih a hun viau reng a ni. Kan thalai ten Cosmopolitan magazine leh magazine hrang hrang te an hum ve fur tawh a. Heng chanchinbuah hian Sex hman nawm dan tur an ziak kur ngei nguai a. Kan thalaite tan chuan tem ve chakawm tak tur hi a ni. Kan ei leh in a tha a, kan hrisel nasa tawh mai si a. Tisa chakna pawh hi a pung ngei ang le. Andra Pradesh-ah hnam hrang hrang sex hman nasat dan an zirnaah chuan hnam hnufual tribal/dalits zingah sex hman zat hi a tlem chuang bik hauh lo tih a ni. Mihringin tisa chakna kan neih hi sual hrim hrim a ni lo. Tisa chakna nei reng reng lo chu mi pangai nih lohna zawk a ni. Ram changkang zawkah chuan hetiang lama harsatna neite pawhin damdawi lama thiam nei an rawn zut zawk a ni. He chakna tihlawhtling tura Kristian ethics, social norms leh dan huang pel a tihhlawhlawhtlinna kan va zawnna tak hi a fuh lo lai chu a ni. Kristian ethics atang chuan Nupa nih hma a sex lo hman hi thil dik a ni lo tawp mai. Mahse, Kohhran zirtirna hian thalai tamtak nun erawh a nghawng thleng pha tawh lo va. Hei avang hian NGO tamtak chuan invenna kawng dang-alternative an lo zawn pui ta hial reng a ni.

Mizoramah hian mipat hmeichhiatna hmansualna hi a hluar reng a ni. Kan khawvel inthlak danglam a, technology a sang chho zeal, tun hma leh tun hnua Sex kan ngaihdan pawh a danglam telh telh a. Mizo siam ngei Video maksak pui pui a awm ta fur a. Kan thalaite zingah mi thenkhat chil va tihput duhna (attention seeking behaviour) rawngkai a awm mek a. Mizo Music video thenkhatah te engemaw tisa chakna ti danglam tumna rawngkai a lang chho mek a. Chung chu, changkang kan tih zawng tak a lo ni a. Hmanni lawkah chuan Super Model neihnaah chuan tleirawl pakhat chu underwear lang vah vah khawpin a rawn kal a. Mipui chuan Miss or Model an nihna angin an thlir tawh lova, tlangval leh patling ho chuan khawhar Inah nen hahip in an sep zui tawh mai a ni. Changkang kan ti miau si a lawm le! Heng ho chezia chu thlifim hauh lovin, naupang leh puitling sawi chuang lovin, kan phek thlir vek si a. An nun zia, chhungril hriatthiam pui phak hauh lo naupang chumchiap lekte chuan, kan celebrity-te intheh no dan te chu an lo entawn nghal mai bawk a. Nu leh pa te chuan, “ka fanu te reuh hi" tiin kan nuih liam mai mai a. Naupangte pawh hi ler kan zirtir tel tlat a ni. Heng thil hian kan tunlai khawtlang nun tawp hnawk zet hi a hring chhuak mek a ni.

Mizoramah hian Nu leh pa nei mumal lo, naupang enkawlna Kohhran leh pawlin kan ngah ta hle a. Heng naupang zinga tam takte fahraha an pianchhuahna chhan hi sex hmankhawlohna nen hian inzawmna a neih a rinawm hle.Mizoram in AIDS kan hmelhriat tam ta lutuk hian Sex kan hman dan chu a tilang tawk viau a ni. Kan NGO te hian thingtlang lamah bu han khuar thuk deuh se, thingtlang mi zingah hian AIDS vei engzat nge awm tawh ang le. NGO hnuaia AIDS enkawltu pakhat chuan “AIDS positive an enkawl mekte hi a then chu nula nalh leh hmeltha tak tak an ni a. Khawtlangin a endawng laklawh tawh bawk nen, an mahni a rilru puitling zawk an put theih hma a, tanpui an nih reng loh chuan- an nun hluia let leh hi an chak reng thin a. An nun hluiah let leh se, thingtlang pa hlawh la thin leh sorkar office dawr tura khawpui pan thinte hian an hre hrang dawn si lova, an hnar phal dawn bawk hek si lova, Rei lote chhungin AIDS positive hi an pung hluai mai dawn a ni a ti. Damdawi In thenkhatah chuan damlo inentir zingah thisen thianghlim lo zet zet an awm nawlh nawlh fo mai. Nakin lawkah chuan nupui/pasal nei turte pawhin thisen test hmasak phawt hi kan la rawt hial mai angem le?

A nih leh thalaite chuan sex chu engtin nge an ngaih chiah le? Madini chu a thian ten thangthar tawngkam takin “changkang lo” an ti thin a, a chhan chu mipa ala mutpui loh vang a ni. A mah pawh nasa takin a inkil tawih phah em em thin a ni. An awmna hostel-a a hmeichhiat puite chuan mipa an mutpui vek tawh a. Rawlthar mipa tam tak chuan hmeichhe mutpui tawh nihna chu uan pui nan tak an hmang mai thin bawk. Tleirawl zingah hetiang hi a hluar em em tih Lunglei tleirawl pakhat chuan tih tak meuhin min hrilh mauh mai.

Nau tih tlakte pawh hi ngaihmawh tham a awm ta. Civil Hospital, Lungleia Nurse pakhat chuan, “nitin hian nau ti tla pakhat tal hi an lo kal ziah thin” a ti. Nausen tuiril mai an la nih laia tihtlak ai chuan nau thankin tawh tih tlak a tam hle tih a sawi bawk. Private Medical Clinic ho sum luhna ber pakhat chu nau tih tlak ni a sawi a ni. Aizawla Private clinic-te ringawt hian kumkhata nau ti tlak zat record hi engzat tak ni ang le? Pu PC Biaksiama te chauh ni lovin, kan hmeichhe pawl MHIP leh Kohhran hmeichhiate hian tih tak zet a vei a va hun ta em. Tleirawl pakhat chuan “nau tih tlak ngai khawp khawp hi an mawl a ni mai, In ven theih em mai” tiin a sawi a. Damdawi a tam em mai” tiin min hrilh a. Tleirawl pakhat chuan a thiannu in a bialpa nen Sex an hman dan hi a hrilh thin thu a sawi a. Rawlthar(Mipa) thenkhat ka kawmte chuan “Blue Film” (thalai an tawngkam chuan- Mi rethei film) an en uar hle thu an sawi a. Pakhat ka zawh chuan, Mizo thalai tam zawk (a bikin khawpui) chuan Blue film an en vek thu a sawi a. Computer neite chu an thian te nen an inhawh tawn thin thu leh Video Library atanga an hawh thin thu an sawi a. Mizoram Video Library-ah chuan a hawh man a to zawk avang leh a hlawk zawk avangin a awm fur hlawm a ni tih a sawi bawk. Tin, thingtlang lamah pawh Pirated CD hi tlawm te te in Burma leh Bangladesh atangin hmuh zung zung tur a awm niin a sawi.

Tleirawl (Hmeichhia) thenkhat Sex film an en thin em ti a ka zawh ve thungte chuan an sawi tha duh lo tlangpui a. Thenkhat chuan, an unaute computer-a awmsa tihpalh thilthua an hawn chhuah palh a, an en ve zuai thin thu an sawi a. An en ve tawh hrim hrim em tih zawhna chu, “a tenawm em mai” tih hlak pahin a tam zawk chuan an en tawh tih an sawi zeuh va. Ka la en chiah lo ti te pawhin, en ve chhin hrim hrim an pawi an tih loh thu an sawi bawk. Mipa ka nih avang information hi min hrilh tha duh meuh lo a ni. Hmeichhia ngeiin interview mumal tak conduct thei se, hriatchhuah belh tur a awm nual ngei ang. Engpawhnise, hemi atanga rin lawk theih chu, hmeichhia tam tak pawh hian an en ve thin ngei tih chu a chiang viau. (Notes: Sex Film en hrim hrim hian a tha emaw tha lo emaw a nghawng chhuah tur lam hi chu helama thiamna neite chhuiah dah ila, a bikin thalaite sukthlek hrim hrim hriat theihna atan ka han tarlang tel mai a ni.)
Sex kaihnawih harsatna hrang hrang chuan nasa zawkin min ko mek a. Thenkhat chuan “Thianite Len” siam mai an rawt bawk. Hetih lai hian kan NGO thenkhat chuan concert ilo nikhuaah te chuan “kawhte bel” (condom) an lo sem mawlh mawlh bawk. NGO thenkhat, Thianite enkawl tute chuan an zan len dawna “kawhte bel” an lo paipawn mawlh mawlh bawk. Mizoram mai a ni lo, Mizoram pawn thlengin “thianite" hi kan kat nuk tawh mek a ni.

Kum 2004-2005 chhung khan rape case-64 a awm a, 2005-2006 khan-39, molestation-2004-2005 khan case-87, 2005-2006 chhung khan case-53 lai a awm hman bawk a ni. IPC hnuaia case register dangah hian pawngsual nia ngaih chiah loh, mahse hemi kaihnawih hi engzat chiah nge awm ang le? Tunhma kha Danin pawngsual a hrilfiahna hi a famkim lo em em a, pawngsual rawngkai case tamtak kha investigation neih hnuah meuh chuan case danga register sak an ni fo thin. Tun lai chuan pawngsual awmzia hi hrilhfiah thar zel a a ni a, a huam theih pawh a zau em em tawh a ni.

Mizo zingah pawngsual kan tih hian mipa in hmeichhia an sualna hi a kawk tam ber a. Pawngsual tih hian Mipa leh hmeichhia chauh a ni lo va, hmeichhe puitling in mipa naupang an pawngsual thei a, mipa leh mipa chungah pawngsual hi thleng thei a ni. Tin, hmeichhia leh hmeichhia inkarah pawh pawng sual thleng thei a ni. Heng hi Mizoramah survey mumal tak awm thei ta se, a thleng kim viau tawh lo’ng maw? Kan thiannu pakhat nen Lunglei Police hotu pakhat ka zawh chuan, “Pawngsual tak tak hi a thleng ngai lo, engemaw vang a ni zawk” tiin a sawi a. "Hmeichhe awm mawh vang a ni tlangpui e" a ti bawk. Hmeichhia in mipa hnenah an beisei ang an hmuh loh hnuah pawngsual an ti tha leh vek mai mai a ni” tiin a sawi. Eng chen nge he ngaihdan hi pawm tur tih erawh ngaihtuah tham a ni. Aizawla Police hotu pakhat ve thung chuan, “Mizo zingah puitling zingah Pawngsual tak tak a thleng ngai meuh lo, naupang pawngsual erawh police pawhin kan ngai serious viau a ni” a ti. Kan Police leh a field a che thin kan NGO te hmuhchhuah hi a inan loh hmel viau a ni.

Mizorama rape thleng reng reng hi report vek a ni chiah ang em? Mi hmusit leh endawng hlauh avangin report mumal loh hi engzat nge awm ang? Zirbing mi leh NGO te tan pawh khawrhchhuah kim vek sen a ni hauh lovang. Mi thenkhat chu an pa te emaw an uanau pa emaw ten an pawngsual nawn awn awn hnu kum tam hnuah an sawi ngam chauh a. Thenkhatte erawh mahni in an sepui ruah do tlawk tlawk kumkhua thung bawn dawn a ni.
Kan chanchinbu mite pawh hi an fimkhur a hun a ve tawh. Pawngsual tuartute hmingte hi chanchinbu-ah tarlan chuai chuai hi a fuh ber lo. An nun kal zel a, mi endawng hlawh theih an nih avangin an identity hi ven him sak tlat tur a ni. Tarlan kan duh rau rau anih chuan an hming hi thlak danglam sak tal tur a ni. Hman deuh khan Skylink local cable network chuan “viewer discretion” pawh siam hmasa hauh lo vin, Africa rama tribal/ethnic group thenkhat ho sex hman dan a ngial a nganin an rawn ti chhuak hmiah mai nia. Kan local cable network ho hian media kalphung hi an chik tawk lo deuh niin a lang. Sorkar hian hetiang hi chu khap hial se tih a duhawm hle.

September 2006 khan Lengpui-ah chuan mi pakhat chuan, mi pangngai pha lo deuh hmeichhe pakhat hi vawi-4 dawn a lo pawngsual tawh a. An khua te hian report nghal mai lovin, he pa hi warning an lo pe hmasa te te a. Mahse, a khawih zui zel avangin police hnenah pek a ni chauh a ni. He nu hi mi pangai pha lo deuh a nih avang hian an ngaipawimawh tawk lo em ni le? Mihring a nih ve avang tal pawh hian zahawmna a nei love'm ni? Engvangin nge vawikhatnaah hian police an hrilh mai loh?

Kristiannate pawh hi hman sual theih tak a ni. Hman deuh khan chhim lam khaw pakhat (…)ah chuan Nl thangi zan inkhawm bang chu-an thenawm lawk tlangvang pakhat chuan a lo sual a, chemte in a vau bet a ni. Thangi Pa hi ringtu tha tak leh Kohhran mi a ni a, Pawngsualtu leh a chhungte hian bawk khupin ngaihdam an dil nghal a. Thangi Pa hian ‘ringtu kan ni alawm’ tiin alo ngaihdam fel der mai nia. Kristianna atangin kan in ngaidam a ni thei e, Dan erawhin a ngaidam ngai lo tih hi kan hre tur a ni. Report ngei ngei tur a ni. Hepa hian a sim loh zia chu, a hnu lawkah case dang a nei leh nghal a ni.

V.Vanlalruati; Kum Tlinglo Khawihchhiat leh Pawngsual Lakah I Fa A Him Em?’ tih lehkhabuah chuan kumtling lo naupang khawih chingpenna lak fimkhur tul zia a lang chiang hle. Khaw pakhat (?) chuan naupang pakhat chu an awmpui rawltharin alo khawih thin a. Naupang anih avangin alo sawi thiam mai si lova, a tawpkhawkah hmeichhe naupang chuan thil nat thu a sawi ziah tak avangin an han zawt chiang a. An han hriatchhuah meuh chuan vawi engemaw zah alo khawih hman tawh a. He tleirawl hi hmeichhe naupang Pu nupui bik fa a nih avangin report a ni lo va. An insawi rem kual ta mai mai a ni. Hetiang hian sual kan vulh lian a, kan chul mam mai mai fo thin. A pawi tak zet a ni.

Hman deuh khan khaw pakhatah chuan chhungkaw rethei taka hmeichhe naupang chu pawngsual a ni. MHIP ten hma an lak pui dawn lai takin hmeichhe chhungkua leh pawngsualtu chhungkua chu Rs 5000 velin an lo inngaidam fel der mai nia. MHIP hruaitu zinga pakhat chuan ti hian min hrilh a, “ka va kal chilh a, an pawisa dawn chuan hmeichhe naupang chuan a nu hnenah 'wai wai min lei sak rawh aw' tiin a lo ngen a, lung a ti chhe tak zet a ni” a ti. He hmeichhe naupang hian a zahawmna khawih chingpen sak a ni tih reng a hre lo. Hetiang thil hi kan Mizorama thil thleng dik tak a ni ang tih rinngam hi a har asin! Hetiang case hi Mizoramah hian engzat nge thleng tawh ang le?

Lalruatfela Nu: Nawhchizawrhna leh a Kaihnawih, Lengchhawn Press, Aizawl 2004-ah khan chuan naupang pakhat chu a pahrawnin a nu awm lai ngeiin a pawngsual a. A nu chuan, "mate tap suh, a na rei lovang" a lo ti nia. Kan khawvel tawphnawk zia leh chona kan la lak nep si zia hi a lang chiang viau a ni.

A nih leh kan K.S te hi? K.S enkawltu NGO hnathawktu pakhat chuan ti hian min hrilh: “KS chi hrang hrang zingah KS tam tak chu an tet laia lo khawih bawrhban tawh an ni. An mahni rilruah khawtlangin endawng leh kawmserh niin an inhria a, kawng dang awmin an hre tawh lo va. Tuna an nun hi an thlang ta mai a ni”. Mi hausa nu, Sunday zinga rangkachak thi awrh chunga Biak In a tawngtai thinte hian Biak In chhung atangin hi chuan an khawngaih thin a lawm. Mahse, heng KSte hian an chenna in bathlar lek pawh rawn rap ngat sela chuan Tommoto uih in an lo vawm nghal duh ngat ang!

Kohhrante pawh hian nasa zawka hma a a lak a tul a ni. Kohhran thalai zingah Kohhran dan puitlinga inneih kan sawi mawi a. Mahse, kan hlawhchham lam deuh chu a ni. Chhimlama Pastor pakhat chuan, "kan bial chhungah kum tam ka awm chhungin Dan puitling a innei 2 chiah an awm a. A beidawn thlak a ni a ti. Chaw ngheia kan tawngtai avangte leh kristian ram kan intih avang ringawt hian hetiang thil hi a thleng lo dawn chuang lo. Hma lakna kan neih hi a hun ve tawh a ni. Kan sawi belh leh lawk teh ang. Kohhran mi deuh pakhat hnenah hma lak tul zia ka sawi a. A ni chuan Kohhran pawhin, "mahni tawkah hma chu ka la chho ve mek zel a" zuak ti duh lek a.

A nih leh Sex education chu enge ni ber ang le? Thil pakhat mai pawh a ni hauh lovang, naupang, thalai leh nupa nuna kalphung chu a inang hauh lovang. Naupang leh thalaite chu tawhsual an tawh loh nan te, nupa-a insiam hma a sex an lo hman mai loh nan te, sex in a nghawng chhuah tha lo tak lakah zirtir an tul a ni. Hetih lai hian Mizorama nupa tang then tam takte pawh hi a bul tak chhui ila, Sex lama harsatna a ni awm tak a ni. Heti anih chuan, nupate chu sex hman dan hrang hrang zirtir an ngai ta hial zawk a ni. Thenkhatin a nih lohna tura an hman nasat em em laiin, thenkhat dang te chu hman that hleih theih loh avanga buaite hi kan awm ngei tawh ang. CHuvangin, Sex education theuh theuh pawh thliarhran fel deuh hi a ngai ta a ni.
Sex Education kan mamawh kan tih rual hian mipui tam zawk chuan kan hip thiam tak tak meuh rih lo. Thenkhat chuan an han sawi a, ngaih loh lamah an lo ngai nghal mai bawk a. Hman ni deuh khan chanchinbu pakhatah chuan mipakhat hian Sex Education chungchang a rawn ziak a. Pawngsual tih rem nan, pawngsualtu mipa til lak sak a rawn rawt teh ngawt nia. Sex Education pawh ni lovin, hremna chungchang ni awm zawk tak a ni. A duh rorum lam mah mahin ka hria.

Hman kum khan chhim lama Thalai Kristian Pawl pakhat chuan Sex inzirtirna hun an buatsaih a. Mithiam bik an ruai a, thusawi lai chuan a ngaithlatu thalai rual chu an nui hluah hluah mai nia!. A engber kha nge an hip tak ang le aw? Hemi hnu hian Kohhran Hmeichhe Pawl in Sex inzirtirna bawk chu an huaihawt ve thung a. He mithiam bawk hi an ruai ve leh ta thung a. Nu tamtak chuan, an ngaithla zak ti tih tlat mai nia. Inkhawm banah chuan, nu thenkhat chuan thusawitu hnenah chuan, “patling tawh lehnghal i lo va mak roh ve a” zu ti zek pek a. Sex education sawi turin in sawm te te a, an mak roh zawk ngawt mai” tiin a sawi chhuak hial nghe nghe a ni.

Kan chanchinbu zawng zawng a, tapchhak theory hmanga sex chungchang thai tial chiam chiam hian awmzia a nei ber ang em? Heng ai chuan, Mizo zinga mipat hmeichhiatna lam thiamna nei bik- sexology, psychology, psychiatry etc lama thiamna nei ten chona la ngam ta zawk se kan zia zawk ang em le. An ni hi awmze nei a thangthar zirtirtu tangkai tak an nih ngei a rinawm. sex education kan tih rual rual hian…duh duhin mahni ngaihdana an rawn puak chhuah pui phawng phawng hian awareness tak aia sex hmang uar zawng a thangthar hrilh veng tawk lek hi a ni mai palh ang tih a hlauhawm viau zawk a ni. Zirtirna kim chang ni lo, entirnan naupai theih hun leh indan ringawtte sawi uar ta viau ila, thalai tam tak chuan "Indan dan ka hre tawh bawk a, sex chu duh tawkin hmang tawh mai ang aw" ti zawngin alo la palh daih thei a ni. Thangthar rilruah hian kawng engkim - a chhia-a-thaah an adventurous tial tial a, khap chin/huang (restrictions and prescriptions) chin dai chakna rilru a lian hle tawh tih hi i theihnghilh lovang u. Chuvangin, engkim mai hi systematic zawk leh tunlai khawvel inher chho zel mil tur a chona hi kan lak ngam a hun tawh a ni tih hi ka thutlukna ni teh se.

Notes:Mimal hming ka han tarlan te khi mimal identity thup sak nan phuahchawp vek a ni. He chanchin ka ziah a thilthlengte hi a tam zawk hi ka hmelhriat ngei te chunga thleng a ni. Tin, hemi bakah hetiang chanchin zirtu kan NGOte hnen atanga ka dawn a ni. Tin, mi thenkhat ka kawm kual atanga ka lakkhawm mai a nih avangin Mizoram ziarang zawng zawng erawh a ni kher lem lo vang. Mi thenkhat ngaihdan ka lakkhawm mai a ni tih hriat a tha ang. He article ka ziakna tura information min petu NGO a thawk mekte leh ka thiante, tleirawl leh rawlthar ka kawm zawng zawngte chungah lawmthu ka sawi mawlh mawlh e. Thanks vawi sarih…!!!.

Thursday, August 30, 2007


Thu kheuh hawnna: Tunlai Hmeichhiate, an nihna ang tak a pawm a, an chanvo dik tak an hmuh theih nan hmalatu an pun chhoh mek laia inhnialna ti chhuak fo tu ‘Feminism’ awmzia hi enge ni ber le? Mizote tan hmehbel rem chiahlo leh thianglo ang hiala ngaihna awm fo hi engvang nge? Feminism awmzia kan hriat fuh loh vang emaw a hmanna tur tawk kan hriat loh vang a ni thei angem?

Feminism tih chu enge ni ta le?

Feminism tih hian hmeichhe bik ngawr ngawr a ni lo tih kan hriat hmasak a tha awm e. Hmeichia leh mipa inlaichinna, ram leh khawtlang pum chanchin, hmeichhia nun atanga bih chianna hmanrua pakhat ni. Hmeichhe chungchang bik liau liau pawh lo ni ta sela, kan vaia tan a pawimawh dan a danglam chuang hauh lova. Feminism tih hi thil pakhat mai ni lovin, peng hrang hrang leh kalphung hrang hrang nei a ni. Feminism than chhoh zel dan hi hunbi zawnga sawi dawn chuan; Feminist thawm rik tan tirh (19 century atanga kum zabi 20na tantirh) hi first-wave feminists (Feminist tlipui tleh vawikhatna) tia sawi thin a ni a, kum 1960 hnu lamah, the second-wave feminists (Feminist tlipui tleh vawihnihna) in a chhunzawm a, kan tunlai hun tawng mek hi third-wave feminists (Feminist tlipui tleh vawithumna) ti a vuah a ni.

Tichuan, Feminism chu hlawm lian tak tak pathumah dah hlawk theih a ni; English ho tawngah chuan, Female tih hi hmeichhia tihna emaw thing leh rannung, chi thlah pung tura naupai / tuipai thei sawina a ni. Feminine tih anih chuan, pianphung leh rilru lama hmeichhe ziarang bik sawina a ni. (Oxford Dictionary). Tichuan, heng tawngkam pahnih atang hian feminism tih chu lo kalin, ‘mi tu pawh hmeichhia leh mipa hian “chanvo” thuhmun (equal rights) an nei tur a ni’ tih inzirtirna hi ‘Feminism’ chu a ni. Hetiang ngaihdan neitu leh a taka hmangtu te hi ‘Feminist’ tiin an sawi thin.

A pahnihnaah chuan zir zauna (academic) huang chhungah Feminism tih hi hman thin a ni. Hmeichhiate chanvo humhalh a nih ngei theih nan, hmeichhe nun zia atanga, sakhuana (religion), ei leh bar (economy), ram inrelbawlna (politic) leh khawtlang (social) chanchin zirna bingna hi Feminism tih a ni. Feminist zing bing mi ten hmanlai atanga tunlai hmeichhiate leh a kaihhnawih theih thil zawng zawng uluk takin an zir a, a kalhkim lo apiang an haihlang a, hmeichhia ten an chanvo dik tak an hmuh ve ngei theihna turin rawtna hrang hrang an siam thin a ni. Heng hmeichhe chanchin zirtu zingah, Liberal Feminism, Marxist Feminism, Radical Feminism, Postmodern Feminism, Dissident feminists, Eco-feminism, Socialist Feminism, Feminist theologian etc te bakah (sub) pawl tesep; pop-feminism, spiritual feminism,
Amazon feminism, Eco-feminism, Individualist Feminism, French feminism, Gender feminism, equity feminism, cultural feminism etc te hi hriat hlawh ber ber tur te an ni.

A pathumnaah chuan, ram leh khawtlang inrelbawlnaah khawtlang pawl pakhat anga ding thin te an ni. Heng hmeichhe pawlte hi NGO emaw Pressure group an tih thin angin an awm a.
National Organization for Women, NARAL Pro-Choice America, Feminist Majority, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Women living Under Muslim laws, Committee for Asian Women te hi khawvel hmeichhe pawl lian ber ber te an ni. Hmeichhe chanvo humhalh a nih ngei theih nan leh hmeichhiate hmasawn theihna turin atul apiang (sorkar hnena hmeichhe hamthatna ngaihtuah, khawtlanga inzirtirna pek, hmeichhe chan chhe zawk tanpuina pek etc) an thawk thin a ni. Tin, Sorkar pawhin hmeichhe humhalhtu pawl dinin heng hmeichhe pawlte nen hian an thawk ho fo bawk. Khawvel hmun tamtakah chuan sorkar inthlannaah hmeichhia ten vote an nei thei ve lova, hmeichhe pawlte hian theihtawpin hmeichhe vote neih theih nan tan an la thin a ni. Inchhungkhur leh khawtlanga hmeichhiate chunga dik lo taka tharum thawhnate, (Domestic violence), pawngsual (rape) leh harsatna hrang hrangah hmeichhe dinhmun siamthat tumin an thawk mek zel a ni. Thenkhat chuan, feminism tih tawngkam hmang lovin, women's movement tiin sawi a, Feminist te nen an kalphung thil hrang daih niin an ngai bawk.

Heng kan han sawite bakah hian mi thenkhat Feminist tih aia, “hmeichhe inhmang mi” (Women Activist) inti an la awm leh a. Zir zauna huangah chuan, Gender studies ti a sawi thin a ni a. Kawng tinreng a, mipa leh hmeichhe inkungkaihna chungchang an zir thin a ni. (Gender chungchang hi feminist ten an zir tho bawk) Tin, hmeichhe thenkhat chuan, Mipa thuhnuaia hmeichhiate awm tho si a, hmeichhiate dinhmun thuam that an sawi mawi bawk a. (eg-Ruatfela Nu) Hmeichhiate tana chanvo ruat sak an sawi mawi hle thin. Heng hote hian feminist an inti chiah thin lo. Hemi huangah hian Mizorama kan hmeichhe pawl lian tak pahnih, MHIP leh Hmeithai Association-te pawh hi an tel ve ngeiin a rinawm. Khawvel hmundangte nen tehkhinin, an kalphung leh sukthlek (ideology) a danglam deuh mai chauh a ni.

Feminism than chhoh dan:

‘Feminism’ emaw ‘feminist’ tih tawngkam hi English tawnga hman a nih tanna hi Hmeichhe thlipui tleh vawihnihna (second wave) hnu lawk kum 1890 bawr vel nia sawi a ni. A hmang chhuaktu hi French Socialist lar tak pakhat, Charles Fourier nia sawi a ni. Amaherawhchu, feminist bul tanna erawh he mi hma fe atanga lo irchhuak tawh ni a sawi a ni.
Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (1486-1535) lehkhabu ziah ‘Declamation on the Nobility and Preeminence of the Female Sex’ tihah chuan hmeichhe chanvo humhalh chungchang alo auchhuah pui der tawh a. Mumal zawka a rawn irhchhuahna chu modern hun kan chuankai vanglai kum zabi 19na lai tak a ‘harhtharna hun’ (Enlightenment period) an tih atangin khan a ni. Heng hunlai hian hmeichhe dinhmun chiang zawk a bih chiangtu an lo chhuakin, hmeichhe humhalhna chungchang auchhuahpui tan a ni. Hmeichhia te’n zirna school an kal ve theihna turin Lady Mary Wortley Montagu leh Marquis de Condorcet ten theihtawp an lo chhuah thin a ni. Kum 1785 khan hmeichhiate dinhmun humhalhtu pawl chuan Dutch republic-ah Scientific society for women an lo din a. Hmeichhe chanchinbu ti chhuak in bul an lo tan nghal bawk a ni. Kum 1792-ah chuan nu pakhat, Mary Wollstonecraft chuan tunlai thleng lehkhabu lar em em mai, ‘A vindication of the rights of Women’ tih a tlangzarh a. Hmeichhe humhalh duhtu an pung zel a. Kum 1848-ah Women Right’s Convention chu New York khawpui Seneca Falls an tih hmunah din a ni a. Hei hi tunlai khawvel Feminism meichher chhitu pawimawh tak a ni ta ni. He mi hnu, Kum 1869-ah chuan ziaktu lar, John Stuart Mill-a lehkhabu ziah ‘The Subjection of Women’ tihah chuan dan hmanga mipa leh hmeichhe inhnuaichhiahna hi thil dik lo a ni tih a sawichhuah meuh chuan feminism ngaihdan mumal tak a piang chhuak der tawh a ni.

Kum zabi 19na atanga kum zabi 20na kan chuankai lai khan khawvel boruak a inthlak danglam nasa hle a. Khawl hmanga thil siamchhuah leh thiamna a pung a, hriselna leh inchhungkhur khawsak dan a inthlak danglam nasa a. Ram leh hnam lian zawk an piang chhuak a, ram inrelbawlna dan thar duanchhuah anih rual khan sakhaw thar leh rindan thar a piang chhuak tel nghal bawk a. Hmanlai huna mi pakhat rorelna ramah te chuan mipui rorelna sorkar (democracy) din a ni. Mi tin ten an chanvo humhalhna duhna thinlung an pu a. Mihring hi khawvel thil siam zinga danglam ber leh pawimawh ber anih avangin, chhia leh tha hriatna hman thiam tul zia hailan a ni. Hetia khawvel a inthlak danglam mup mup rual hian hmeichhiate dinhmun pawh kawng tam takah a inthlak danglamve ta bawk a. Amaherawhchu, sakhuana, ram inrelbawlna leh khawtlangah mipa te’n nen chanvo thuhmun pek an ni lo mai ni lovin, hnawl an ni hial zawk a. Khawthlang ram a Democracy (mipuite rorelna sorkar) hmelhriat anih hnu ngei pawh chuan, inthlannaah vote thlak phal sak an ni ve ta hauh lo. Mipuite sorkar chuan hmeichhiate chu mipuiah a chhiar ve duh ta lo a ni. French Revolution 1789 hnu atang phei kha chuan Hmeichhe humhalh tum a, hmalatu hmeichhe tam tak te’n an martar phah a ni. Hetih lai hian, India ramah pawh thuamchhawm (dowry), Hmeichhe naupang tihhlumna (female infanticide),te Pasalte thih ruala an nupuite hal hlumna (Sati) avangin hmeichhia ten an tuar nasa em em a. British lak atang India independent hnu kum 59-na ah daih pawh, hmeichhe naupangte hi tihhlum an la ni ta zel hi lung chhiat thlak tak a ni. Muslim culture hluarna ramah hmeichhiate dinhmun a chhe leh zual hle thin. Hetiang hian tunlai khawvel-ah ngei hian hmeichhia an nihna avang hrim hrim ‘inthliarna’ ala nasa em em a ni. Hei hian ahrin chhuah tak chu hmeichhe humhalh tura hmalatu pawl hrang hrang feminism/feminist kan tih te hi a ni. Khawvel kalphung fuh tawklo tuartu, hmeichhia-ah boruak alo sang deuh thin anih pawhin a hriatthiam awm hle a tih theih. Hmeichhe harsatna za-a-za (100%) hi Mipa-te hriatthiam pui vek theih a ni lo hrim hrim mai. Chuvangin, hmeichhia ten an harsatna sukiang tura hma anla hi a awm ve hliah hliah zawkin Mipa-te pawhin tanpui hial zawk tur a ni.

Mizoramah thenkhat ten hnamdang (Vai/Hindu/Muslim) hmeichhiate nen khaikhinin Mizo hmeichhe dinhmun hi atha lutuk kan ti fo thin a. A dikna chen a awm, amaherawhchu, eng ram leh hnam kalphung mah hi in ang diak a awm lo. Khawvel hmuntina hmeichhia te’n harsatna an tawh dan hi a thuhmun vek lova, Mizoramah Sati emaw Dowry a awm loh avang hian Mizo hmeichhe dinhmun hi lungawi thlak hle emaw a ni ngawt hek lo. Hindu hmeichhiate tawrh ve ngai hauh loh hi Mizo hmeichhia ten an tuar fo tho. Hindu hmeichhe dinhmun atanga Mizo hmeichhie dinhmun sawifiah tum hi a famkim tawk lo. Kan khawtlangah ngeia Mizo hmeichhe dinhmun tak hi chik zawka bih nawn fo zawk tur a ni. Kan hmeichhiate chawikan tulna apiang hi kan ngaipawimawh hle tur a ni, hmeichhe dinhmun a san chuan, chawp leh chilhin mipa dinhmun pawh a sang dawn tihna a ni.

Feminism hi kan hmang thiam tur a ni:

Thil engkim hi a hmanna tur tawk hriat a nih loh chuan buaina leh chhiatna thlentu a ni fo. Hetiang bawk hian Feminism ngaihdan pawh hi atha hle emaw atha lo hle emaw a ni ngawt lova. Khawtlang nun rualtlang taka a kal theihna tur hmaraw pawimawh takah hman theih anih mek laiin, khawtlang boruak ti chhe zawnga kalpui theih tho bawk a ni. Tunlaia Feminist thenkhatte pawh an kal fal lutuk fo thin. Hmeichhe zirbingtu thenkhat phei chuan, khawvel awm tirh khan ‘Hmeichhiate hi Mipa aia thunei zawk an ni a, tihluihnain Mipate’n an chhuhsak a ni e’, an ti a. Thenkhat chuan Mipa hrim hrim huat inzirtirna ang dawn dawn thehdarh tum an awm fo thin. Entirnan Radical feminist thenkhatte chuan khawtlang dinhmun harsatna bulpui ber chu mipa thuneihna bakah, mipa hrim hrim hi niin an sawi a. He mi tirehna tur kawng awmchhun chu hmeichhe leh mipa dah hran hlawk emaw thliar hran hlawk hi a ni an ti mauh mai le. A la vung zual, pawl thenkhat phei chuan Mipa leh hmeichhia chhungkua a insiamna bul, inneihna hi an duh lo bur tawh a. Tisa chakna in a mamawh anih chuan, lamhnai emaw thian hnai deuh zing ami mutpui mai kha an thlang hial zawk a ni. Thenkhat te chuan, hmeichhia chauhvin nau pai bik lovin Mipa pawh hian nau pai ve tawh rawh se tih hial sawi a ni. Radical feminist lar tak pakhat
Mary Daly chuan khawvel kalphung mumal zawk a nih theih nan ‘mipa population hi tih hniam a, hmeichhia ten mipa an tam hneh hrim hrim angai a ni’ a ti hial a.

Engpawhnise, eng ngaihdan pawh hi khawtlanga remna leh muanna thlen thei chi anih loh chuan, ngaihdan dik lo a ni chawk. Hetiang bawk hian Feminism huanga ngaihdan hrisel tawklo inphum ru fo thinte hi thlitfim a pawimawh tak zet. Kan tunlai Mizoram khawthlang rem tur tawk chiah hriat chian atul tak meuhin mipa hrim hrim do nana hman chi a nilo tih kan hriat a tul takzet. Feminist lar tak
Christina Hoff Sommers (Camille Paglia) chuan feminism hi Mipa do nan hrim hrim a hman dik loh zia atlang au pui fo tawh thin a. Tin, Katha Pollitt (Reasonable Creatures) chuan, feminist thenkhat ten arualtlang zawng thlir lova, inthliarhranna ang zawnga hman an tum fo thin hi thil thalo tak niin a sawi. Hengho te hi feminist ni lovin, sexist (mipa emaw hmeichhe bik emaw thliar hran tlat duh mi) tih tur an ni zawk a ti hial a ni.

Feminism chhunga ngaihdan hrisel lo thenkhatte avanga, feminism tih hrim hrim, Mizorama kan lo hnuatsual vek mai hi a fuh lo ber zawka chu a ni. Mizoram-ah zirtirna/ngaihdan/ideology thar danglam tak tak, entirnan, capitalism, cyber-culture, globalisation, postmodernism etc tih te kan hmelhriat tan mek a. Hengte pawh hi a tangkai zawnga hman anih loh vek chuan hlauhawm thei tak vek an ni. Amaherawhchu, Feminism ang em hian kan lo tawng let kher ve lova, hetiang chungchanga ti ti vawrh theihte chu, lehkhathiam deuh leh vengva deuh turah kan ngai hial zawk a ni lo’m ni? Khawvel mi zawng zawng hi engtik khawtikah mah kan intluk tlang thap dawn lo. Amaherawhchu, hmeichhia emaw mipa an nih vang hrim hrim a, “inthliar bikna” hi chu tih reh theih a ni. Khawtlang a hmeichhia leh mipa inthliarna tam tak hi hmanlai atanga ram leh khawtlangte siamchawp a ni tih hi Feminist-te ngaihdan a lo ni thin. Tling lo chung a nih tur tum lam ni lovin, keimahni theihna leh tlin phak chin ang zelin a ni tur a ni. Entirnan, hmeichhia anih vang hrim hrim a, ram hruaitu atan emaw Pastor atan tlak loh a ngaihnate, hmeichhia anih vang a eirawngbawl hrim hrim tura ngaihna chi te hi chhut ngun atan atha hle. Entirnan, Inchhungkhurah pawh hmeichhia zawk hnathawk, inchhungkhur sum la luttu ber anih lai a, mipa zawkin hna vawn mumal neilo anih chuan, mipa zawk hian a tul dan azirin eirawng bawl leh sekrek khawih hi ti ve ta mai thin sela. Mipa tih tur bik hliah hliah emaw hmeichhia tih tur bik emaw ni lovin, chhungkaw remchan dang ang zela insiam rem thiam hi a tha ber awm e. Chanvo kan tih rual hian mawhphurna insem zai thiam hi kan zir a pawimawh tak zet. Hei hi mipa leh hmeichhiate rualtlang taka kan awm theihna tur a ni.

Mizo History ziaka kan neih chinah hmeichhe lam chanchin hmuh tur a vang hle. Mizoram in buai a tawh lai khan hmeichhia tam tak chu zalenna sualin ramhnuaiah anlo vak vai ve tawh a. Tunlai hian, an chanchin hriatzui a ni ta meuh lova. Kan chanchinbu leh lehkhabu chhuakah te pawh tarlan an ni ngai meuh lo. Kan Mizo Hmeichhiate’n khawtlang leh ram tana an hnathawh te hi kan tarlan sak thiam a, kan chawimawi thiam a hun takzet mai.

Bawrhsap N.E Parry’an kan hnam dan (customary Law) min dahkhawm sak atangin, Mizo hmeichhe dinhmun chhiatna engemaw zah siamthat tawh a ni. Amaherawhchu, kan hnam dan hi tunlai khawvel atan a famkim ta lo hle. Nupui pasal inneih, inthen ni khuate leh chhungkaw rokhawm chungchangah te hmeichhe chan ala chhe em em a. He thil hi kan rama Hmeichhe pawl din anih tantirh atang khan an lo sawiri fo tawh thin. Tun thlenga siamthat ala nilo cheu hian hmeichhe laka kan rilru sukthlek a tarlang hle. Rev Dr H.S Luaia phei chuan, hmeichhe man hi nuaibo hial alo rawt tawh a ni. (Ralvengtu, January, 2006).

Northeast India-a Crime record-ah hmeichhe chunga dik lo taka chetnaah Mizoram chu pahnihna ti a tarlan a ni a. (The Aizawl Post, Dt.9th Feb 2006) Hei hian kan hmeichhia te chunga kan rilru putphung kan thlak deuh tul zia a ti lang hle. Mizo khawtlangah hian, hmanlai atanga tunlai thlengin, zahawmna tibo thei hial turin hmeichhe chhaih nawmnah kan ching hle thin a. Kan tunlai hmeichhiate pawhin huat en in an en ngai meuh tawh lova, a ve tur rengah kan ngai zamah thin. Hengte hi tunlai khawvela tih atan a mawi ber tawh loh mai bakah dan kalh a ni.

Mizoramah mi thenkhat chuan a bawplawkah lak kan ching fo thin. Mipa thenkhat te’n kan chakna thahrui chhuanga hmeichhiate hnuaichhiah tum kan awm thin hi bih chian a hun ta hle. Postmodern khawvel hi thahrui chakna ngawr ngawr hmang kal a ni tawh lova, thluak hmanga kal zawk a ni. Thluak hmang thiam apiang an dingchang tawh mai a ni. Mizoramah pawh lehkhathiam zingah hmeichhia an thleng sang zawk ta mah mah tih kan sawiri fo a. Tunlai phei chuan, thahrui hman ngaihna, hna hram kan tih te pawh Mizo hmeichhia te’n an thawk ve bawrh bawrh tawh zawk a ni. (e.g. Satalha eizawng). Hmeichhia te’n hna hautak zawk pawh an ti ve thei zel tawh tih alan chhuah meuh chuan, kan zo lo deuh ta hialin, Hmeichhia, Satalha eizawngte pawh kan sawisel ti tih hial ta zawk a nih hi. Chuvangin, hmeichhiate chak lo zawk leh tih theih nei tlem zawk hrim hrim a, dah a, an chunga leng thei intihna rilru hi kan paih deuh a hun hle. Nakin lawkah chuan, hna hram tam takte thleng hian kan hmeichhia te’n min thawh khalh vek anga, mipa thawh tur hmu lo te hi kan nuar tlut tlut palh ang tih a hlauhawm ta hial zawk a ni.

Feminism emaw Feminist-te hlimthla hi Mizo khawtlangah kil hnih-khat emaw chauhin tarlan a ni thin a. Feminist tih anih tawh chuan mipa do hrim hrim tura dahna kan nei a. Thenkhat phei chuan, Biakin pulpit tlang atang meuhin kan diriam hial tawh mai thin. Tunlaia hmeichhe lehkha zirsang deuhte pawh, feminist viau tur emaw ngaihna kan nei bawk thin. Hmeichhia an nihna anga an zirlai atanga conciousness an neih kha thil tha tak a ni zawk. Lehkhathiam ta na na chu, Mizo hmeichhe dinhmun kalhkim tawk lo an hmu fiah thiam tan pawh alo ni thei. A eng a mah a hma a, lo tawng let hrim hrim duhna rilru kan pu fo thin hi i in enfiah deuh ang u.

Mizo hmeichhia ten an hawiher/sukthlek an thlak danglam hmasak atul:

Tunlai kan Mizoram hmeichhe pawl hmalakna chak tawk theih lohna chhan ber ni a lang chu an mahni hmeichhiaah hian a ni. Pawl hmalakna pawh hmeichhiate bawk hian an pawmpui lo fo thin. Chuvangin, kan hmeichhe pawl hruaitute hian Mizo hmeichhia zawng zawngte (common platform) ngaihdan leh duhdan huap zo an duan chhuah a tul a ni. Tin, Mizoram kan hmeichhe pawlte hian an pawl nawr kaltu tu tur (support-tu) an mamawh a ni. Khawvel hmundangah chuan, zirbing mi te’n an chanchin chhui zauna atangin thil awmdan leh kalphung tha zawk an duang chhuak a. Heng mite hian, hnunglam leh hmalam atangin an nawr kal tlat thin a ni. Kan hmeichhe pawl pawh hi, an mahni tanpuitu tur, Hmeichhe chanchin atanga khawtlang nun zirbing mi, mithiam an mamawh hle tawh niin alang. Kan Mizo hmeichhe zingah, Padma Shri Nuchhungi, Lalsangzuali Sailo, Linda Chhakchhuak, Lalruafela Nu, Buangi Sailo te bakah, kan theologian Dr. Vanlaltlani, Dr. R.L Hnuni, Dr Lalrinawmi Ralte bak hmeichhe hamthatna ngaihtuah a, hnuhma nei an awm meuh lo. Hmeichhe chanchin zirna lama, heng hmeichhe inhmang mi (activist) te hian an tihtur an tih tan a hun ta a ni.

Hetih lai hian, kan Mizo hmeichhe activist-te hian, khawvel ramdanga Feminist pawlte thil ngiat apiang Mizorama lo lakchhawn tum ve zel tur pawh a ni lovang. Kan ram leh khawtlang mila kan hman thiam zawk a tul a ni. Ram rorelna Assemble leh Village Council inthlanah te concession phut hi thil fuh ber niin alang lo. Hengah hian inthliarhranna ang chi a awm hran lova, India citizen danin a phut ang tling apiangte tan tel theihna a ni. Concession leh seat inruatsak sa ang hi chu tling lo chung inhnawhluh tumna a ni. Ram siamthatna tur a kawk zo meuh lo. Central Sorkarin alo ruahman anih pawhin, kan rama kan tih loh zawk atha ang. Hei ai chuan, Hmeichhiate, politics huanga hnarkaitu ni ve thei ngei turin kan inchher hriam a pawimawhin hmeichhiate hian an mahni an inenfiah hmasak a tul. India ram hmeichhiate halhluma rapbet thin ramah hian politics kalphung chu hmeichhiate kuta awm deuh thaw thin a ni. Indira Gandhi (L), Sonia Gandhi, Jaya Lalitha, Mamta Banerjee etc te’n India politics an kawih her theih zia kan hre vek mai. Hetiang bawk hian kan Mizo hmeichhiate pawh hian tumna (will) an neih phawt chuan, Mizoram politics hi an thlak danglam thei ngei ang. Tunlai Mizoram politics kalphung hi mipui te’n thlak danglam tul ni a ngai, an pun mek lai hian kan ram kalphung chu a danglam tak tak thei si lo. Hetah tak mai hian, kan Mizo hmeichhiate hi ram rorel khawlah han lut ve chhin sela, kan kalphung hi danglam zawk ngeiin a rinawm. Kan hmeichhiate pawhin, pawl hruaitu (YMA, Village Council, KTP, TKP) abikin President nihna angte phei hi chu an tih turah an ngai lo hial thin hi an inenfiahna tur a ni. He mi tlin thei ngei turin kan Mizo hmeichhiate hi an inchher hriam tan a hun ta hle. Tin, intluktlanna kan tih lehlam chiahah hian “MAWHPHURNA” a awm ve tih ka hriat a tul. Hetih lai hian, kan Mizo hmeichhiate hian kawng engkimah mipate mawhphurna lak ang erawh anla ngam ve ngei tur a ni.

Tin, kan khawthlang pawl leh kohhranah te pawh hmechhe chanvo hi kan ngaihpawimawh ve ngei a tul ta hle. Sakhuana lamah Kohhran leh pawl thenkhatah (Salvation Army-te leh Pu Chana pawl etc) chuan hmeichhia te’n chanvo pawimawh tak tak an nei thin a. Mizoram Kohhran lian ber pahnih; Baptist leh Presbytarian-ah te erawh chanvo anla nei nep hle. Pastor (BD) zir tur chuan hmeichhia leh Mipa lak thin a ni. Amaherawhchu, kohhran lian pahnihte hian Pastor turin hmeichhia an nei thei lo ve ve rih a. Mizo zinga hmeichhe pakhat chuan “rawngbawl duhna tak tak rilru puin Pathian thu kan zir a, theihtawpin kan bei ve thin a, kan zirlai a kan thian mipa thenkhat kei ni aia ti thei vak lo zawk leh thurawn kan pek fo thin te, Kohhran rawngbawl tura ordination pek an han nih meuh hi chuan rilru a na duh khawp mai”a ti hial a ni. Kohhran rorel khawlah pawh hmeichhiate an tel meuh lova, Baptist Church of Mizoram Assemble-ah chuan, Kohhran hmeichhe pawl atangin member pakhat emaw chauhte telve phal sak an ni. Hmeichhia hian an tlin anih phawt chuan an telve phalsak hi a finthlak zawk ngei ang. Kan hmeichhiate hi pastor-ah te, Kohhran Upa-ah te, Rawngbawltu-ah te dah ve tawh ila, mipa an phak lohna tur a awm hauh lo. Tunlaia kan Mizo hmeichhiate kalphung en hian Mizo hmeichhiate hian an tlin hle tawh zawkin a rinawm. Kawng zau zawk kan hawn sak phal lo mai chauh a ni.

Awle, khawvel ram changkang apiangah hmeichhiate thawm a ring thin. Keini pawh, hma kan sawn zel anga, kan duh emaw duhlo emaw feminism hi alo lut tho tho dawn. Hmeichhia chauh ni lo, kan zoram pum khawtlang hmasawnna atan, zir chiang sela, tan la sauh sauh rawh se. Hetih rual hian feminism tih hi mipa hrim hrim do na tur hmanrua tur a ni lo tih kan hriat nawn fo a pawimawh. Khawtlangah hmeichhia leh mipa inkungkaihna a thil tha thlentu hmanruaah i hmang mawlh teh ang u.

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37. VIRGINIUS XAXA; “Women and Gender in the Study of Tribes in India”, Indian Journal of Gender Studies, Vol.11, No.3, Sage Publications New Delhi/Thousand Oaks/London, 2004.
38. www., Encyclopedia: Feminism.
39. Non Governmental organisation, Mizo Hmeichhe Insuikhawm Pawl,.www.,
40. Laldena, “Status of Mizo Women”,, Feb 8, 2003. The Sangai Express, 2003.
41. Judith Lewis; “The Men Behind the Women; or, The Origin of Feminism”, February 28th, 2006.
42. Sukhendu Bhattacharya; “Women at a disadvantage in Mizoram”,, November 15, 2003.
43. of Marxism: Glossary of Terms.

Tuesday, August 7, 2007

Mizo language (duhlian): Marker of Mizo Identity

Culture is a defining feature of a person's identity, contributing to how they see themselves and the groups with which they identify. Culture may be broadly defined as the sum total of ways of living built up by a group of human beings, which is transmitted from one generation to another. Every community, cultural group or ethnic group has its own values, beliefs and ways of living. The observable aspects of culture such as food, clothing, celebrations, religion and language are only part of a person's cultural heritage. The shared values, customs and histories characteristic of culture shape the way a person thinks, behaves and views the world. A shared cultural heritage bonds the members of the group together and creates a sense of belonging through community acceptance.

Language is intrinsic to the expression of culture. As a means of communicating values, beliefs and customs, it has an important social function and fosters feelings of group identity and solidarity. It is the means by which culture and its traditions and shared values may be conveyed and preserved. Language is fundamental to cultural identity. This is so for people everywhere. For this reason, it is important that people keep their own language alive. As languages disappear, cultures die. The world becomes inherently a less interesting place, but we also sacrifice raw knowledge and the intellectual achievements of millennia. The use of community languages is important both for individual and group identity and for communication across generations.

This is also true in the context of Mizo or Zo. Our linguistic diversity has always been embedded in space, time and group, and has been reduced over the last hundred years with the arrival of the British. While 'Mizo-Duhlian' is now the dominant language, many people speak a language other than 'Mizo (duhlian)' as their first language within their families and communities. Over three "languages" (Lai, Mara and Hmar) other than Mizo (duhlian) are spoken in Mizoram today. The acquisition of proficiency in "Standard Mizo (duhlian)", together with the maintenance of community languages is therefore a significant issue in Mizoram and to their cognate tribes of Kuki, Thado, Paite and Zomi of Manipur, Zomi of Burma, Mru, Bawm, Pang and Lusei of Bangladesh, Hmar, Kuki and Lusei of Assam, and Lusei, Zo, Zhou and Falam of Tripura. Proficiency in 'Mizo (duhlian)' is critical for successful participation in the Mizo society and for exchanging information about the values and perspectives of cultures. Similarly, proficiency in first language skills is essential for self-enrichment and expression of identity. In large parts of Mizoram, the loss of a great number of dialects (eg Ralte, Fanai-Lai) means that for many people, Mizo (duhlian) is their first language and is a particular marker of identity. Mizo (duhlian) developed as a means of communication for Mizos between people of different clans/lineages/sub-groups and even with non-Mizo people of the Riangs (settle in western border of Mizoram and Tripura) and the Chakmas (settle in Southern border of Mizoram and Bangladesh). Mizo (duhlian) is now an important marker of identity for all "Mizos" irrespective of their kin-group, clan, lineage and sub-group.

Wednesday, August 1, 2007

The Last day of July 2007

July 2007 atan a ni hnuhnung ber a ni. Zing atangin khua a dur a. Dar 12 vela tang chuan tih tak zetin ruah a sur ta a. A sur hnem nangiang mai. ka tihtheih awm chhun chu, ka awmna hostel tukverh atanga pawn lam thlir chu a ni ber mai. Ka tukverh atang chuan ruah si a rawn per lut seng seng a, dawhkana ka lehkhabu dah te pawh a huh tak ngial dawn a, tukverh ka khar ta a. Vanneih thlak takin tlai lam dar 3 velah chuan a duh tawk a ngah ve ta a. vawilehkhatah khua thiang nghal vek a. Chhimbal a rawn zam nghal a. Kan hostel piah lawkah hian dil mawi zet mai peacock lake an tih hi a awm a. Summer chhungin tui a kang zo titih a, fur ruah tui hian a rawn chhungkhat leh thin a ni. Tih tur em em a awm hran lo bawk a, peacock lake ah chuan ka va kal ta a. (Camera: SONY DSC H9, 8 M.P, 15 X Optical Zoom)

Chhim bal alo zam a.

Ruah sur zawh chuan ramngawte pawh an hring tha bikin ka hria.

Saturday, July 28, 2007

Women Issues in Mizo Society

Hmingthanzuali & H.Vanlalhruaia

"We must agree that most women want freedom and most women want equality as well. This is what makes us similarly human. That we may define these constructs differently also makes us uniquely human."
- Zillah Eisenstein

Abstract: Women Issues is new and complex in Mizo society. My purpose is to show how the present Mizo society fails to incorporate women’s concerns or overlook gender issues, how and why the prevailing misconceptions about gender and women’s issues emerge in Mizo society?

Discourse on women issues has been gaining popularity beginning from the post-colonial period through to the times of the recent public media. The subject of women issues gave a new impetus of looking at the question of women’s identity in the Mizo society. It has been felt that male predominance tends to ignore the role of women in the pre-colonial Mizo society. The general assumption is that many aspects of life in the Mizo society has been influenced by modernization particularly from the early part of 20th century. Traditional cultures have been re-defined since the Mizos’ contact with the British and Christian missionaries, although sensitization towards the arena of women based issues continue to be confined within the model of western patriarchal paradigm. More than ever, patriarchy is gaining a stronger hold in the modern period especially when compared to the pre-colonial period. (B. Lalrinchhani, 1998) Modernization can be seen largely in terms of material culture, whereas ‘traditionalism’ still influences the Mizo society at the level of consciousness and ideas. Mizo customary laws in relation to women practically have not changed. (Laldena Hmar, 2002) Initially, women consciousness stated within the framework of the church was mostly based on protestant ethics. However, many churches seldom give equal rights to women since the ideology of the church is based on a patriarchal model. Ordination of women pastors/reverends is unknown despite the development of the Baptist church’s broad-mindedness towards the appointment of women as church elders/officials or Kohhran Upa/Rawngbawltu. (Linda Chhakchhuak, 2002) This has urged Mizo women theologians to raise questions over and over again.

Political consciousness during the post-independent era initiated a succession of changes in the Mizo society. Despite the rise of a new educated class who created a consciousness within the society, political parties and social organisations fail to recognise the importance of gender issues. Hence, a group of Mizo women have continuously felt dissatisfied and this gave rise to the establishment of the Hmeichhe Tangrual Pawl in 1946, followed by the Mizo Women Organisation (MHIP) in 1964. Initially, the new women organisation raised the need to reform traditional and cultural practices of the Mizos. They raised their voice against discrimination and injustice in the society. Today their activities range from the set up of orphanage, drug de-addiction camp, movement of protests against rape, domestic violence, reform of customary laws, reform of bride price and many others. But these issues usually end up in nothing beyond mere discussions.

Various academic discourses on Marxism, capitalism, globalization, subaltern, popular culture, human rights, postmodernism, post-structuralism etc provide a new thinking for many educated Mizos. Together with this process, the term ‘feminism’ (a distinctive problematic concept) recently appeared in public vocabulary although it has been strongly opposed by a group of men, and of course, a majority of Mizo women themselves. The hegemony of patriarchy has been well constructed as many women activist are branded as ‘anti-men’. Hence, women activist are not in a position to voice women issues and they also tend to identify themselves as ‘non-feminists’. This is due to personal justification or perhaps a lack of understanding ‘feminism’ as an ideology. Moreover, the majority of Mizos have stereotypical views on feminism as ‘anti-men’ rather than ‘emancipation of women’. Who ever talks about women issues is usually labelled as a feminist (generally, feminism has negative implication in Mizo society). Very few women (mostly women theologians) who speak publicly about gender discrimination are regarded as extremist or Hmeichhe Nasa. Of course, some women who perpetuate these ideas are often even aggressive when defending their ideas. There are also women activists, researchers, etc who keep quiet and show nothing but compliance to the existing order of society, this is done as a result of fear of insult.

Theoretical discourse on women issues in Mizo society is far more behind than other issues. Because there has been little attempt by scholars and intellectuals to conceptualize in the context of Mizoram. What is gender or women issue in the context of Mizoram? Why do a majority of the Mizos have a strong discrimination towards gender or women studies? This is perhaps due to Mizo women activists and researchers not being equipped with a strong ideology, as they scarcely spell out the question of women or gender issues in the context of the Mizo society. Moreover, there are very few devoted women activists, scholars and researchers to expose gender relations and to investigate how assumptions, norms and hidden structures created and perpetuated disadvantage women in Mizo society. At least if there were some viable arguments it would be easy to defend women’s position.

Recent works on women studies, for instance Lalruatfela Nu’s "Engvangin nge Hmeichhiate hi tihchak an tul?" (The Aizawl Post. 25. feb, 2005) talks about empowerment of Mizo women. The article starts with gender division based on the genetic postulation in which she emphasized ‘men are stronger than women’. Taking this into consideration, one can hastily presume that physical strength has been an important criterion of gender division in society. Most women intellectuals would argue that ‘difference between men and women’s achievements and participations are result of socially constructed gender roles rather than of biological difference. (Kamla Bhasin, 2000.p.62) Moreover, there is no point of questioning the biological factor which will not change at all. The fact is that men do not hold plain superiority or stronger position over women in the present Mizo society. Are we trying to construct our society based on the masculine body? Physical strength may have played a role in the caveman days...but not since. And further, had women not been able to "gather" and thereby watch the camp for possible intruders (multi-tasking) we may have not survived either.

Currently, most of the Mizo women activists have claimed–and disowned–the label "feminist". After all, who would want to be a feminist in such a society where gender issues are strongly opposed? For instance, Rualfela Nu declares "I’m not a feminist to the extent that I would fight for ‘gender equality’ in the Mizo society". (The Aizawl Post. Dt.25. feb, 2005) One must wondering what ‘equality’ and ‘gender’ means to her? Her paradigm in her previous book "Nawhchizawrna leh a kaihnawihna" was very much a part of a significant issue in feminist thought and activism. (Lalruatfela Nu, 2004) What makes her is not always herself, but something that comes from her. It is likely that she outwardly rejected the term ‘feminism’ but not the feminist’s gender issues. Ruatfela Nu does not directly contest male-centred ways of knowing even as she questions the gender discrimination in Mizo society.

History has largely remained a record of public events and personae to the exclusion of the private sphere of the home and the family. Some women put forward that ‘History is HIS STORY; to get a complete picture of the world we also need HER STORY’. (Kamla Bhasin, 2000) This exclusion of women from the domain of history seeks to reinforce prevailing gender stereotypes. By portraying women as passive through the ages, it would be easier to justify their continued exclusion from the public sphere. (Veena Poonacha, p.399) Looking at the current trend in Mizo history, few efforts have been done to reconstructs the role of women. Why has the role of women in the history of Mizo society remained relatively unexplored, though their potential contribution to an understanding of social change appears so obvious? Moreover, women’s role in history has been largely ignored and seldom recorded by Mizo historians. For instance, where are Mizo women who were actively involved in the Mizo National Front (MNF) movement of 1966-1987? We need hard working scholars who will use various theoretical perspective, paradigm and varying levels of analysis.

Marginality of women could be seen in the trend of women’s participation in the political process of the state. In pre-British society women play significant role in the village administration as there were many female rulers among the Mizos. Ropuiliani Chieftainess gave her life for defending her territory where most Mizo chiefs gave up. Now, the role of women in pre-British Mizo politics becomes a history as current politics is virtually dominated by men. There are no women members in State Legislative Assembly. Even in the district level, there are very few women in the village council. In such society, who could expect practical reform on the position of Mizo women and how many times will women issues are diverted in the State Assembly or in the village council?

In times of campaigns, political parties are usually generous in giving promises to women to better their future, but mostly such promises remain on paper. Women do not find a place on decision-making committees of political parties. But mere entry into the political system should not end transparency, accountability and commitment for the women’s movement. Instead of being submerged in the vastness of events, procedures, dogmas and ruthless competition, the movement must sail on to its destination of equality and empowerment. The task is uphill, but is not impossible. Women’s entry to politics is necessary to help them in their struggle against injustice and to strengthen democracy. (Usha Thakkar) If mainstream Indian women such as Mamta Banerjee, Sonia Gandhi, Uma Bharti, Phoolan Devi, Jaya Lalitha and many others play such important roles in both regional and national politics, why not our Mizo women? (Remsangpuii Nu, 2001).

Due to this extreme cultural patriarchal hegemony which remains predominant in our society, many individuals and groups continue to encounter gender inequality. Recently, there has been a paradigm shift as Mizo women are more and more progressive towards raising women issues in Mizo society. The last few years witnessed numbers of conferences, trainings and workshops on the subject of women organised by NGO’s, Universities, the Government and women organisations etc. Since then the idea of gender is slowly ingrained in our contemporary society, at least among social activists, organisations and academicians. Why not respond positively rather than branding them as anti-Mizo towards the customs and traditions of the Mizo society? Moreover, there is nothing wrong in being a women activist or a feminist if not hijacked for the purpose of chauvinistic ‘feminism’ or ‘Gynocentric’ or ‘Gynarchy’ or ‘Gynocracy’ or ‘sexist’ or ‘anti-men’.

Gender equality is a myth, whereas gender discrimination can be wiped out. As for me, gender equality means socio-economic and political ‘participation’ based on a person’s ability to possess and perform, without any discrimination based on sex or biology, caste and creed, and so on. Let us hope that Mizo intellectuals and scholars will take up the challenge to bring out the ideas of ‘women issues’ or ‘gender’ or ‘emancipation of women’ in Mizoram: what, when, why and how? Finally, let us also look forward for the time when more and more Mizo women actively take part in the cultural process of the Mizos without marginalizing their roles in the society.


@Many thanks to Adami and Mami, University of Hyderabad, Bianca Maison, D/O Dr Vumson L (Zo historian) South Asian Studies, Amsterdam University, Linda Chhakchhuak, Journalist, Editor of Grassroots Option and Rebecca, Bangalore for their thoughtful comments and suggestions on the earlier versions of this paper.

@Gender refers to the socio-cultural meanings given to masculinity and femininity and to the complex and varying relations between the two. (L. Ackers, 1998) Women Studies has diverse meaning, but here it is purposefully refers to a discourse that attempt to reconstruct/re-defining women’s experience and women’s role in the society.

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Linda Chhakchhuak; "Patriarchy in religion",
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Ruatfela Nu (2005); "Engvangin nge Hmeichhiate hi tihchak an tul?", in The Aizawl Post, (Daily News Paper, Mizoram) 25. Feb.
Lalruatfela Nu (2004); Nawhchizawrhna leh a Kaihnawih, Lengchhawn Press, Aizawl 2004.
Remsangpuii Nu (Buangi Sailo) (2001); Mizo Nunhlui leh Tunlai, Aizawl.
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